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, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose is a linear polysaccharide whereas amylopectin is a branched polysaccharide. Amylose consists of 100–10000 glucose monomers whereas amylo- pectin consists of approximately 100000 glucose units, so the degree of polymerisation is much higher for amylopectin. Both amylose and amylopectin are built up by glucose monomers. Pota- to starch consists of 79 % amylopectin and 21 % amylose and maize starch consists of 72 % amylopectin and 28 % amylose. Waxy maize starch contains only amylopectin [20]. In order to use starch as wet-strength agent

The influence of two wet strength agents on pore size and swelling of pulp fibres and on tensile strength properties Mats Haggkvist, STFl and Stora Corporate Research AB, Daniel Solberg and Lars Wsgberg, SCA Research AB and Lars ~dbe rg , STFl and AssiDoman AB. Sweden Keywords: Butanetetracarboxylic acid, (BTCA), Polyamide- amine epichlorohydrin resin, (PAE), NMR, Relaxation, Pore size distribution, Swelling, Wet strength. SUMMARY: The effect of two wet strength agents, butanetetra- carboxylic acid (BTCA) and polyamide-amine epichlorohydrin resin (PAE

The effect of inorganic ions on the adsorption and ion exchange of Kymene 557H by bleached northern softwood kraft pulp Robert S. Ampulski and Charles W. Neal, The Procter & Gamble Company, Paper Products Division, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA Keywords: Adsorption, Ion exchange, Kraft pulps, Inor- ganic salts, Wet strength agents, Water retension, Zeta potential, Freeness. SUMMARY: Inorganic ions in the process water have been reported to interfere with the wet strength generation of paper containing a cationic wet strength resin. In an effort to develop a

On the mechanism behind wet strength development in papers containing wet strength resins Lars Wiigberg and Mirjam Bjorklund, SCA Research AB, Sundsvall, Sweden Keywords: Adsorption, Wet strength agents, Bonding strength. Infrared spectra, Mechanical properties, Chemical pulps. Car- boxymethylation. Electrostatic charge, Swelling. Bonded area, Polyelectrolytes. SUMMARY: The improvement in strength when a polyamide- amine epichlorohydrine (PAE) polymer is added to a number of carboxymethylated pulps has been investigated in order to see whether or not

Size-exclusion chromatography for characterization of cationic polyelectrolytes used in papermaking Agne Swerin, STFI, Swedish Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Lars Wbgberg, SCA Research AB, Sundsvall, Sweden Keywords: Cationic compounds, Synthetic polymers, Poly- electrolytes, Gel permeation chromatography, Molecular weight, Molecular weight distribution, Intrinsic viscosity, Adsorption, Kraft pulps, Wet strength agents. SUMMARY: A size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) me- thod to characterize the molecular weight distribution (MWD

Canada 3 Radiata pine New Zealand 4 Loblolly pine Brazil 5 Mixed with Lodgepole pine, Spruce, and Sub-alpine fir Canada 6 Eucalyptus Brazil 7 Eucalyptus Brazil 8 Birch Finland 9 Acacia Indonesia 10 Eucalyptus Chile Chemical additives In this study, dry strength agents, wet strength agent, softener, lotion, etc. were applied to evaluate the effect of chemical additives on the softness of hygiene paper substrate. Table  2 shows the basic properties of the chemical additives. The charge characteristics were measured using a charge analyzing system (CAS, AFG

, high initial solid content also meant that a higher nip temperature was needed to reach high paper strength (Back and Anderson 1979 ). The highest wet tensile strength level was developed at a nip temperature of 200 °C, which is well above the softening temperature of lignin. This was the case for paper sheets based on very different kinds of lignin-rich pulps without using wet strength agents. Paper sheets from CTMP and HT-CTMP hot-pressed at 200 °C had an extremely large increase in wet tensile strength, comparable to commercial wet strengthened papers where wet

® 736 (K736) is one of the commonly used paper wet strength agents. K736 is not as effective as Kymene ® 557H, but it is less expensive. This is the reason why K736 has been investigated in the present study to replace Kymene ® 557H for a superior soybean flour-based wood adhesive. Materials and methods Materials Defatted soybean flour (DSF) (50.0% crude protein, 4.5% crude fiber, 1.2% fat, and 8.0% moisture content, MC) was obtained from Cargill, Inc. (Minneapolis, MN, USA). K736 was obtained from Solenis, Inc. (Wilmington, DE, USA). The total solid content of K736

Fellers 5 Optical Properties of Pulp and Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Anthony Bristow 6 On the Mechanisms behind the Action of Dry Strength and Dry Strength Agents . . . . . 169 Lars Wågberg 7 On the Mechanisms Behind the Action of Wet Strength and Wet Strength Agents . . . . 185 Bo Andreasson and Lars Wågberg 8 The Surface of Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Anthony Bristow 9 Paper and Printing

another should be as fast and smooth as possible. It is also evident that pro- ducers of different products have different problems to handle. Mills using recycled or mechanical pulp have to control detrimental substances of various kinds (Graver et al. 1997). For producers of fine paper or magazine paper a good monitoring and control of the behaviour of the filler is of vital interest. For other grades, optimisation of the addition of process chemicals like sizing or wet strength agent is important. The standard wet-end monitoring tools in real time are pH electrodes