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than that for conventional resources [ 3 ]. They are processed for phosphatic fertilizer production with uranium as by-product of fertilizer industry [ 4 ], [ 5 ], [ 6 ], [ 7 ], [ 8 ]. Yellow cakes are an important intermediate for processing of all uranium ores. Crude yellow cake is produced in various chemical compositions such as sodium diuranate (SDU), magnesium diuranate (MDU), heat treated uranium peroxide (HTUP) etc. which depends on nature of ores and ore processing methods, availability of required facilities at processing site and other economic as well as

Radiochim. Acta 99, 335–339 (2011) / DOI 10.1524/ract.2011.1840 © by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, München Investigation of the 236U/238U isotope abundance ratio in uranium ores and yellow cake samples By M. Srncik1,2,∗, K. Mayer2, E. Hrnecek2, M. Wallenius2, Z. Varga2, P. Steier3 and G. Wallner1 1 Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Straße 42, 1090 Vienna, Austria 2 European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe, Germany 3 VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics

Radiochim. Acta 99, 807–813 (2011) / DOI 10.1524/ract.2011.1886 © by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, München Characterization and classification of uranium ore concentrates (yellow cakes) using infrared spectrometry By Z. Varga1,∗, B. Öztürk1, M. Meppen2, K. Mayer1, M. Wallenius1 and C. Apostolidis1 1 European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe, Germany 2 Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker-Zentrum für Naturwissenschaft und Friedensforschung, Beim Schlump 83, 20144 Hamburg, Germany (Received April 11

(Received February 6, 2007; accepted in revised form April 18, 2007) Lead isotopic composition / Nuclear forensics / Uranium ore / Yellow cake Summary. Lead is contained as trace element in uranium ores and propagates throughout the production process to intermediate products like yellow cake or uranium oxide. The lead isotopes in such material originate from two sources: natural lead and radiogenic lead. The variability of the isotopic composition of lead in ores and yellow cakes was studied and the applicability of this parameter for nuclear forensic investigations was

Summary. The rare-earth element pattern was used as an additional tool for the identification and origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates (yellow cakes) for nuclear forensic purposes. By this means, the source of an unknown material can be straightforwardly verified by comparing the pattern with that of a known or declared sample. In contrast to other indicators used for nuclear forensic studies, the provenance of the material can also be assessed in several cases even if no comparison sample is available due to the characteristic pattern. The milling process was

concentrate / Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry / Isotope ratio analysis Summary. In this study the most important analytical methodologies are presented for the nuclear forensic inves- tigation of uranium ore concentrates (yellow cakes). These methodologies allow to measure characteristic parameters which may be source material or process inherited. By the combination of the various techniques (e.g. infrared spec- trometry, impurity content, rare-earth pattern and U, Sr and Pb isotope ratio analysis by mass spectrometry), the possible provenances of the illicit

-bisulfate equilibrium on anion exchange resins. Ind. Eng. Chem., 47, 1620-1623. 32. Kiegiel, K., Abramowska, A., Gajda, D., & Zakrzewska, G. (2015). A study of precipitation of yellow cake for production of nuclear fuel. In INCT Annual Report 2014 (pp. 36-37). Warszawa: Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. 33. Danko, B., Samczyński, Z., & Dybczyński, R. (2006). Analytical scheme for group separation of the lanthanides from biological materials before their determination by Neutron Activation Analysis. Chem. Anal., 51, 527-539.

vanadium in alkaline solutions. Sep. Sci. Technol., 48, 1402-1408. 13. Hausen, D. M. (1998). Characterizing and classifying uranium yellow cakes: a background. JOM, Dec., 45-47. 14. Paik, S., Biswas, S., Bhattacharya, S., & Roy, S. B. (2013). Effect of ammonium nitrate on precipitation of ammonium di-uranate (ADU) and its characteristics. J. Nucl. Mater., 440, 34-38. 15. Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G., Jaworska-Sobczuk, A., Miśkiewicz, A., Łada, W., Dłuska, E., & Wroński, S. (2012). Method of obtaining and separation of valuable metallic elements, specifi cally from low grade

.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna, Austria 4 Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Physikalisch-Chemisches Insitut, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Germany (Received February 15, 2013; accepted in revised form May 10, 2013) (Published online November 25, 2013) Raman spectroscopy / Yellow cakes / Nuclear forensics Summary. In the present study, the suitability of Raman spec- troscopy for nuclear forensics is proven by a systematic inves- tigation of laboratory-prepared synthetic and industrial uranium ore concentrate (UOC) samples, of different origin and with wide range of impurity

Xenobiotika Zertifikate Χ Xenobiotika (griech.: xenos = fremd); Xenobiotika sind aufgrund ihrer Struktur und ihrer Eigen- schaften biosphärenfremde Stoffe. Sie wer- den in der -»Umwelt aufgefunden aufgrund synthetischer Herstellung bzw. als Folge anthropogener Tätigkeiten der Menschheit. Yellow cake Bei der Kernbrennstofferzeugung anfallendes pulverförmiges Uranerzkonzentrat, das zu 70-80% aus Uranoxyd besteht. Der Name resultiert aus der gelblichen Farbe des Pro- duktes. Y ζ Zertifikate Zertifikate (-»Umweltlizenzen, ökozertifi- kate