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1 Introduction 1.1 Overview This article deals with a phenomenon attested in a number of unrelated languages where it is known under different names, but which can be described as the linguistic encoding (in certain sociopragmatic and syntactic circumstances) of a non-argumental addressee in some or all main clause predicates. This phenomenon has been recognized in its own right and fully described as such only in Basque, where it has been known under the term “allocutivity” since the nineteenth century. Despite individual differences in use and degree of

DOI 10.1515/9781501504037-010 Virginia Hill A micro-parameter for allocutive agreement 1 Introduction One of the main debates in current studies of generative grammar concerns the interface between conversational pragmatics and syntax: is it or is it not the case that at least some of the pragmatic features involved in direct addresses arise as functional features computed in narrow syntax? The arguments range from admissibility (e.g., starting with Speas & Tenny 2003) to denial (e.g., DeCat 2013). The syntactization thesis gains increasing attention as

Allocutivity and Voice in the Basque Verb Juan C. Moreno Cabrera 1. Introduction A demonstration of the interlinguistic relevance of the diathesis/voice distinction can be con- sidered one of the major contributions of the Leningrad /Sankt Petersburg school of language typology (see V. P. Nedjalkov and V. P. Litvinov (1995) for an overview). Some of its most important publications explore the typological consequences of such a distinction (Xolodovic (ed.) (1974), Uspenskij (1977), Xrakovskij (ed.) (1978), Xrakovskij (1981), Xrakovskij (1991)). Moreover

Andreea Teletin Usages des formes allocutives dans le discours publicitaire français, portugais et roumain 1. Introduction Le texte publicitaire dans la presse écrite, tout en s’appuyant sur les structures actantielles et interactionnelles du discours ordinaire, les construit de façon spécifique. Notre approche s’inscrit dans le courant des études sur l’analyse du discours. Le discours publicitaire étant un discours valorisant et essentiellement pragmatique, son orientation se fonde sur la persuasion, c’est-à-dire la modification du comportement ou du

Elina Suomela-Härmä / Juhani Härmä / Eva Havu (edd.), Représentations des formes d’adresse dans les langues romanes / Representaciones de las formas de tratamiento en las lenguas románicas / Rappresentazioni di forme allocutive nelle lingue romanze (Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki, 89), Helsinki, Société Néophilologique, 2013, 328 p. Die sprachwissenschaftliche Auseinandersetzung mit der Anrede hat sich seit der einschlägigen Arbeit von Brown/Gilman (1960) zu einem breiten Forschungsstrang entwickelt, der im Schnittpunkt zwischen

demonstratives thus cast light on the nature of the mapping from person to place that such systems re- flect (Greenberg 1985). Comparative eastern Berber data suggests that demonstra- tive addressee agreement may be more widespread than the literature reflects. Keywords: Berber, agreement, demonstratives, person-oriented, allocutivity Lameen Souag: Lacito (CNRS – Univ. Sorbonne Nouvelle), 94801 Villejuif Cedex, France. E-mail: lameen@gmail.com 1 Introduction Typological parameters relevant to the description of demonstrative systems have been the subject of extensive

do- pst .3 nh.nom- 2nh .nnom ‘Mahto protested.’ As seen in (9a)–(9c) above, the second person non-nominative agreement markers in Bajjika can also be used to show that the speaker is mindful of the presence of the addressee. This is illustrated by the speaker’s use of second person agreement markers -aw and -au to encode an addressee that is not a constituent of the clause. This function is known as “allocutive” agreement ( Oyharçabal 1993 ). Allocutive agreement is “an instance of non-argumental agreement”, in which the presence of the addressee is

traditionally labeled as illocutionary force or sentence mood, epistemic modality, evidentiality, mirativity, speaker-hearer relations (allocutivity), including politeness and gender distinctions of the speaker and the addressee. Definition 2 The prototypical Asian FP system: A typical language of the area has on average a dozen FPs. Several FPs form clusters that rarely include more than three FPs, but may also include some other elements. 2.4 Comments on Definition 1 and variation scales 2.4.1 Morphosyntactic properties 2.4.1.1 Promiscuous attachment Elements classified as

Open Access. © 2020 Calderón Campos et al., published by De Gruyter. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110701234-013 Calderon Campos, Miguel and Maria Teresa Garcia-Godoy The European roots of the present-day Americanism su merced Abstract: The allocutive su merced ‘His Grace, His Worship’ is currently regarded as a syntactic Americanism. In certain Hispanic American geolects, su merced is currently used for second person singular (2P su merced

vii Illustrative Materials Figures 1. Augustinian Hermit friar 38 2. Capuchin friar 38 3. Observant Franciscan friar 38 4. Conventual Franciscan friar 38 5. Augustinian nun 39 6. Benedictine nun 39 7. Dominican nun 39 8. Franciscan nun 39 Tables 1. Cases of forced monachization adjudicated by the SCC 12 2. Elite families and monachization in Toulouse, 1670–1790 254 Charts 1. Allocutives 87 2. Number of cardinals on SCC 106 3. Attendance at SCC meetings 107 4. National origins of cardinals on SCC 107 5. Cases initiated 246 6