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: “Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system in the lung of Rana esculenta”, J. Morphol., Vol. 260, (2004), pp. 184–192. [19] D. Vagnetti, B. Santarella, I. Di Rosa, R. Cardellicchio and S. Tei: “Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system in frog skin”, Europ. J. Morphol., Vol. 39, (2001), pp. 215–221. [20] M. Cantin, M.T. Kennedy, E. El-Khatib, M. Huet and L. Yunge: “Ultrastructural cytochemistry of atrial muscle cells. Comparative study of specific granules in right and left atrium of various

Eguchi et al, Plasma arginine vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide 437 Original articles J. Perinat. Med. 24 (1996) 437-443 Comparison of plasma concentrations of arginine Vasopressin (AVP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies Katsuto Eguchi, Nobutsugu Ogimi, Tomoko Sawai, and Masaru Yonezawa Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Okayama University Medical School, Okayama, Japan 1 Introduction Expansion of plasma volume is one of the most prominent features which take place during preg- nancy [3,8]. It has been

-regulatory hormones are atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic pep- tide (BNP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), den- droaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) and urodilatin, which play an important role in the homeostasis of body fluid volume. ANP and BNP have already been demonstrated to have diagnostic usefulness in a great number of studies, which have progressed from bench to bedside. This article summarizes existing data on ANP and related peptides in cardiovascular and other disorders, and outlines the potential clinical usefulness of these markers. Clin Chem Lab Med


Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death in most countries of the world. In this study, associations between CVDs and polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), β2-adrenal receptor (B2AR) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ENOS) genes were explored in a community-based setting.

Methods: Between March and May 2001, 1740 subjects ≥35 years from the Matsu area in Taiwan were recruited to this study, representing 71.6% of the target population in Matsu. After informed consent was obtained during an interview, physical examination, resting ECG, serum biochemical profile and a questionnaire survey were used to obtain information. Genomic DNA was also collected and analyzed. Owing to technical limitations, 1186 samples were analyzed. Genetic polymorphisms of the genes in question were investigated using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The distribution of allele frequencies for these genes was derived for stroke, coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and overweight subgroups.

Results: The ENOS Glu298Asp polymorphism was associated with hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio 0.658, 95%CI 0.460–0.940; p=0.025) and the ACE D/I variant was associated with hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio 0.722, 95%CI 0.536–0.973; p=0.033). Polymorphisms of the other genes were not associated with any of the disease groups.

Conclusions: This community-based study reveals that genetic factors might play a role in the metabolism of lipids. The genetic risk for CVDs needs further investigation.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2007;45:20–5.


The clinical relevance of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal (NT)-proBNP assays as a diagnostic tool and prognostic marker in patients with cardiovascular diseases has recently been confirmed. However, several studies demonstrated variation of intra-individual BNP concentrations of >30% (ranging from 30% to 50%) with reference change values at the 95% confidence interval (i.e., the estimated critical difference) ranging from 99% to 130% in healthy subjects and heart failure patients. According to this estimated confidence interval, only a great variation in plasma BNP levels should be considered significant in an individual patient (for example, a decrease of >50% or an increase of more than two-fold). Many recent clinical studies have demonstrated that BNP variations below this estimated critical difference could also have clinical relevance. Like the concentration of other neuro-hormones, levels of plasma BNP fluctuate widely and rapidly along with heart rhythm and blood pressure variations in response to physiological stimuli. However, biological variation of BNP should not be interpreted strictly as random fluctuation around a homeostatic set point, as assumed by the common model used in all studies on biological variation of BNP reported in the literature. These results cannot be directly transferred to clinical practice. While awaiting more accurate studies, we suggest that variations of plasma BNP three-fold greater than the analytical imprecision should be considered as potentially relevant from a physiological and clinical point of view.

supraventricular tachycardias. Br Heart J 1988; 58:458–62. 18 Nilsson G, Pettersson A, Hedner J, Hedner T. Increased plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Acta Med Scand 1987; 221:15–21. 19 Rossi A, Enriquez-Sarano M, Burnett JC, Lerman A, Abel MD, Seward JB. Natriuretic peptides in atrial fibrillation: a prospective hormonal and Doppler-echocardiographic study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 35:1256–62. 20 Madrid AH, del Rey JM, Rubi J, Ortega J, Gonzalez Rebollo JM, Seara JG, et al. Biochemical markers and

other neurohormonal systems, as recently reviewed (1–6). CNHs include atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and their related peptides (including proANP- and proBNP-related pep- tide); while C-type natriuretic peptide(CNP) and urodi- latin, structurally related to the ANP/BNP family, are not secreted by the heart but by other tissues (1–6). CNHs are greatly increased in diseases characterized by an expanded fluid volume (2). In particular, the im- portance of measuring circulating levels of these pep- tide hormones for the classification

Clin Chem Lab Med 2002; 40(4):371–377 © 2002 by Walter de Gruyter · Berlin · New York Aldo Clerico*, Silvia Del Ry, Silvia Maffei, Concetta Prontera, Michele Emdin and Daniela Giannessi Institute of Clinical Physiology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy In order to study the relationships between sex hor- mones, aging, and circulating levels of cardiac natri- uretic peptides and to define reference values for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) assays, we measured the plasma levels of car- diac natriuretic peptides in a large group

. G., Vatta M. S., Fernandez B. E., Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) effects on L-, N-, and P/Q-type voltage-operated calcium channels, Cell. Mol. Neurobiol., 2002, 22, 771–781 [69] Tong Y., Pelletier G., Ontogeny of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) binding in various areas of the rat brain, Neuropeptides, 1990, 16, 63–68 [70] Scott J. N., Jennes L., Localization of 125I-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in the rat fetus, Anat. Embryol., 1991, 183, 245–249

evolution and response to treatment in patients with heart failure, but little data are available about the complex rela- tionships between the degree of neuro-hormonal acti- vation and clinical severity. We studied the relationships between cardiac natriuretic hormones (CNHs) and several neuro-hormones and immunolog- ical markers in a prospective cohort of 105 consecu- tive patients with cardiomyopathy (77 men and 28 women, mean age 66.7"12.4 years, range 33–89 years). We assayed the circulating levels of CNHs (atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natri- uretic