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References Assael, M. J. - Antoniadis , K. D. - Wu, J. 2008. New measurements of the thermal conductivity of PMMA, BK7, and Pyrex 7740 up to 450 K. In International Journal of Thermophysics, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1257-1266. Biodiesel. 2012. [online]. [Retrieved 2012-6-20]. Retrieved from: <http://www.habmigern2003.info/biogas/Biodiesel.html> Bioethanol , CTBE. 2012. [online]. [Retrieved 2012-6-23]. Retrieved from: <http://www.bioetanol.org.br/english/interna/ index.php?chave = bioethanol> Božiková , M. - Hlaváč , P. 2010. Selected physical properties of

cerevisiae for the production of bioethanol. UPB Sci. Bull. , 74 , 33–40. Dale, B. E., Anderson, J. E., Brown, R. C., Csonka, S., Dale, V. H., Herwick, G., Jackson, R. D., Jordan, N., Kaffka, S., Kline, K. L., Lynd, L. R., Malmstrom, C., Ong, R. G., Richard, T. L., Taylor, C., Wang, M. Q. (2014). Take a closer look: Biofuels can support environmental, economic and social goals. Environ Sci. Technol., 48 (13), 7200–7203. Escobar, L. M. A., Alvarez, U. S., Penuela, M., (2012). Continuous production of ethanol in packed bed-bioreactors with immobilized yeast cells on

3 Bioethanol 3.1 Introduction Ethanol has been produced by the fermentation of grains, fruits, and vegetables for millennia, as discussed in Chapter 1. Throughout almost all of history, people were unaware that some form of yeast caused the change from the starches and sugars of a plant-based starting material to the final ethanol. They simply followed recipes that stretched back into a distant past, into antiquity [1]. In the latter half of twentieth century, ethanol production on an industrial scale used two-carbon molecules that had been refined and isolated

most abundant renewable carbon source on Earth ( 4 ). It is presented in different forms (agricultural residues, forest wastes…) and consists mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in different proportions. Moreover, LCB contains polysaccharides ( 5 ) which can be transformed into simple fermentable sugars for the production of biofuels, e.g. second-generation bioethanol. Unlike first-generation bioethanol usually produced from sugar and amylaceous plants, which poses an ethical problem with the use of foodstuffs, second-generation bioethanol concerns only the

worldwide in 2050 is expected to range from 1.5 × 10 11 to 4.5 × 10 11  GJ ( Bastianoni and Marchettini 1996; Huber et al. 2006; Sheehan John 1994 ). Biomass conversion to usable fuels and chemicals such as production of bio-ethanol, biodiesel, biogas, glycerol, bio-hydrogen and resource recovery (nitrogen, phosphorous, volatile fatty acids) has received increased attention from researchers in the past few years ( Aslam et al. 2018b,c; Atabani et al. 2019a; Maaz et al. 2019; Nigam and Singh 2011; Paone et al. 2020; Srirangan et al. 2012; Yang et al. 2019; Zhu et al. 2014

1 Introduction After the overutilization of fossil fuels in the past, concerns are being raised regarding their exhaustible nature and their negative environmental impacts [ 1 ]. In the last decades, there have been many attempts to develop new processes for finding replacements that do not have their negative features but are commercially practical. Bioethanol and biodiesel can be produced from agricultural products and wastes, and have attracted attention because of their huge and diverse raw material availability [ 2 ], [ 3 ], [ 4 ], [ 5 ]. Compared to the

, antibiotics, organic acids, biofuel and biogas [ 1 ]. Bioethanol is known as clean, cost-effective and eco-friendly fuel and has been widely utilized in developed countries as alternative and replacement of the fossil fuels [ 2 , 3 ]. In fact, bioethanol can also be used as gasoline improver or octane enhancer to increase flames speed and heats of vaporization with minimum toxicity and airborne pollutants [ 4 ]. Therefore, its production through submerged fermentation and using agro-industrial by-products, especially sugar beet molasses, is an attractive and eco

1 Introduction Due to the increasing energy crisis and growing environmental concerns, there has been an emergent need for alternative renewable fuel sources to replace fossil fuel-based conventional energy sources. Among all potential alternative fuels, bioethanol in the form of biofuel derived from biomass can well contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and can provide clean environment. Therefore, there has been a paradigm shift in the business strategies of chemical industries throughout the world toward the production of such high demanding

Turkish Journal of Biochemistry – Türk Biyokimya Dergisi 2016; 41(3): 157–166 Biotechnology Research Article – 87360 Khaled Boudjema*, Fethia Fazouane-naimi, Amina Hellal Isolation, identification of yeast strains producing bioethanol and improvement of bioethanol production on cheese whey Biyoetanol üreten maya türlerinin izolasyonu, tanılaması ve peynir altı suyunda biyoetanol üretiminin sağlıklaştırılması doi 10.1515/tjb-2016-0026 Received April 6, 2015; accepted February 2, 2016 Abstract: Objective: In this study, bioethanol production on cheese whey