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_ Carbohydrates by Elizabeth Hounsell Known to most as an important food type, carbohydrates are critically involved in nutrition and metabolism. They also have profoundly important roles in the exciting new area of nutraceuticals, and in materials science. Carbohydrates possess greater potential diversity than proteins and this enormous variety of structure and activity has led to their use in fields as diverse as cancer therapy and toothpaste manufacture. Carbohydrates are already a multimillion dollar business, but their importance in research

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_ Carbohydrates by Berit Smestad Paulsen From 27 July to 1 August 2008, the University of Oslo, Norway, was the host of the 24th International Carbohydrate Symposium (ICS 2008). The conference consisted of the two Whistler award lectures, nine plenary lectures, 20 invited lectures, 115 oral contributions, and 400 poster presentations. There were 605 attendees from 40 countries at the conference, including an impressive group of 140 Japanese scientists. Other countries represented were Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, P.R. China

derivatives and classify them according to structure. CARBOHYDRATES 95. CARBONIZATION OF CARBOHYDRATES In a crucible place sufficient glucose or sucrose to cover the bottom well. Add 1 ml. cone. H2S04, observe at room temperature for a few minutes, then warm cautiously for a few minutes. Discuss the reactions taking place and comment upon the appropriate- ness of the term "carbohydrate." 96. MouscH's TEST FOR CARBOHYDRATES Dilute 1 ml. of each of the following 20% sugar solutions: sucrose, maltose, lactose, glucose, fructose, to 5 ml. with water, add 10 drops

Carbohydrates to Pyrano-Furanoids: New and Regioselective Palladium-Catalyzed Syntheses of Tetrasubstituted Furanoids from Carbohydrate Scaffolds Taleb H. Al-Tel An-Najah National University, Nablus 7, West Bank, Palestine. Fax: ++970-2387982. E-mail: taleb@najah.edu Z. Naturforsch. 55b, 657-660 (2000); received March 27, 2000 Dihydrofuran, Carbohydrates, Palladium A new strategy for the asymmetric syntheses of polysubstituted pyrano-furanoids using allylic sulfates derived from carbohydrate precursors and the dianion of diethoxycarbonyl acetone, catalyzed by

Introduction Cyclopropyl carbohydrates marry the high reactivity of cyclopropanes [1–9] with the rich functionality and unambiguous stereochemistry of carbohydrate chiral pool reagents [10–13]. A range of product structures are preparable through ring opening reactions of the cyclopropanes (vide infra). Products derived from reactions of cyclopropyl carbohydrates represent glycosyl mimetics [14–20], with potential as therapeutics [21–23]. Therefore the pursuit of new target structures in this way has gained much recent attention [24–27]. The ready availability of

References 1 B. Wang, G.-J. Boons (Eds.). Carbohydrate Recognition: Biological Problems, Methods, and Applications , John Wiley, Hoboken (2011). 2 A. J. Alavi (Ed.). Glycoimmunology , Plenum Press, New York (1995). 3 10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.11.040 , M. S. M. Timmer, B. L. Stocker, P. H. Seeberger. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 11 , 59 (2007). 4 10.1093/glycob/cwm033 , G. Alvarez-Manilla, N. L. Warren, T. Abney, J. Atwood, P. Azadi, W. S. York, M. Pierce, R. Orlando. Glycobiology 17 , 677 (2007). 5 M. Fukuda, O. Hindsgaul (Eds.). Molecular Glycobiology , Oxford

Clin Chem Lab Med 2007;45(4):558–562 2007 by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • New York. DOI 10.1515/CCLM.2007.107 2006/531 Article in press - uncorrected proof Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: I. Analyte definition and proposal of a candidate reference method1) International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC)2) Working Group on Standardization of Carbohydrate-deficient Transferrin (IFCC-WG-CDT) Jan-Olof Jeppsson1, Torsten Arndt2, Francois¸ Schellenberg3, Jos P.M. Wielders4, Raymond F. Anton

A Theoretical Study of Carbohydrates as Corrosion Inhibitors of Iron Salim M. Khalila, Elbashir E. Ali-Shattleb, and Nozha M. Alia a Chemistry Department, School of Basic Science, Libyan Academy for Graduate Studies, P. O. Box 79031, Tripoli, Libya b Chemistry Department, College of Science, Tripoli University, Tripoli, Libya Reprint requests to S. M. K.; E-mail: salimkhalil41@gmail.com Z. Naturforsch. 68a, 581 – 586 (2013) / DOI: 10.5560/ZNA.2013-0037 Received February 19, 2013 / revised April 20, 2013 / published online June 12, 2013 In memoriam of Prof A

References 1. Kissa , E. : Fluorinated Surfactants: Synthesis, Properties, Applications , Marcel Dekker , New York , 1999 . 2. Riess , J. G. and Greiner , J. : in Carbohydrates as Organic Raw Material, Part II , Descote , G. (Ed.) Verlag Chemie , München , 1993 . 3. Riess , J. G. and Greiner , G. : Carbohydrate Res. 327 ( 2000 ) 147 . 10.1016/S0008-6215(00)00012-4 4. Mitsunobu , O. : Synthesis 13 ( 1981 ) 1 . 10.1055/s-1981-29317 5. Falck , J. , Yu , J. and Ho , H. S. : Tetrahedron Lett. 35 ( 1994 ) 5997 . 10