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The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy Topics Volume 10, Issue 1 2010 Article 32 Carbon Taxes and Innovation without Commitment Rolf Golombek∗ Mads Greaker† Michael Hoel‡ ∗Frisch Centre, rolf.golombek@frisch.uio.no †Statistics Norway, mgr@ssb.no ‡University of Oslo, mihoel@econ.uio.no Recommended Citation Rolf Golombek, Mads Greaker, and Michael Hoel (2010) “Carbon Taxes and Innovation without Commitment,” The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy: Vol. 10: Iss. 1 (Topics), Article 32. Carbon Taxes and Innovation without Commitment∗ Rolf Golombek

-- The Economists’ Voice December 2009© The Berkeley Electronic Press Carbon Tax: The French Connection Éloi laurEnT I n early 2010, France will introduce a car- bon tax, becoming the largest economy in the world to do so. As the nations of the world prepare to draft a successor to the fatally flawed Kyoto Protocol during 2010, missing the Copenhagen summit dead- line, this is an important commitment. First, because it somewhat eases the grave ‘crisis of credibility’ affecting developed countries that currently plague the UN talks (proposed miti- gation

-1- The Economists’ Voice September, 2010© Berkeley Electronic Press Carbon Taxes to Move Toward Fiscal Sustainability WILLIAM D. NORDHAUS A long with most other high-income countries, the U.S. faces a major increase in the government debt relative to GDP. The most recent report of the Congressional Bud- get Office (CBO) in June 2010 estimated that the debt-GDP ratio will be between 65 and 72 percent in 2015 under alternative assumptions about the baseline fiscal policy. The debt ratio is increasing rapidly as a result of the collapse of revenues in the

Volume 1, Issue 1 2011 Article 6 Accounting, Economics, and Law A Convivium Taxation as Regulation: Carbon Tax, Health Care Tax, Bank Tax and Other Regulatory Taxes Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, University of Michigan Recommended Citation: Avi-Yonah, Reuven S. (2011) "Taxation as Regulation: Carbon Tax, Health Care Tax, Bank Tax and Other Regulatory Taxes," Accounting, Economics, and Law: Vol. 1: Iss. 1, Article 6. DOI: 10.2202/2152-2820.1008 ©2011 Convivium. All rights reserved. Taxation as Regulation: Carbon Tax, Health Care Tax, Bank Tax and Other Regulatory Taxes

for Efficiency and Cost Effectiveness. National Tax Journal , 62 (3), 535–553. Droege, S. (2011). Using Border Measures to Address Carbon Flows. Climate Policy , 11 , 1191–1201. DOI: 10.1080/14693062.2011.592671. Eckersley, R. (2010). The Politics of Carbon Leakage and the Fairness of Border Measures. Ethics and International Affairs , 24 (4), 367–393. DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-7093.2010.00277.x. Edenhofer, O., Kalkuhl, M. (2011). When Do Increasing Carbon Taxes Accelerate Global Warming? A Note on the Green Paradox. Energy Policy , 39 , 2208–2212. DOI: 10

Volume 3, Issue 1 2005 Article 1045 International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems Implications of Carbon Tax on Generation Expansion Plan & GHG Emission: A Case Study on Indian Power Sector Gaurav Nanda, Department of Electrical Engineering, I.I.T.Kanpur Sangeeta Yamgar, Department of Electrical Engineering, I.I.T.Kanpur S.C. Srivastava PhD, Department of Electrical Engineering, I.I.T.Kanpur S.N. Singh PhD, Department of Electrical Engineering, I.I.T.Kanpur Praveen Gupta, Energy Conservation and Environment Division, Central Electricity Authority, New

to reduce CO 2 , has become a hot topic among scholars. Based on carbon tax policy, Fahimnia et al. [ 18 ] set up a closed-loop supply chain optimization model that considered the cost of carbon emissions, and confirmed that the carbon tax policy and closed-loop supply chain can help reduce carbon emissions. Based on carbon tax and carbon trading policies, Zakeri et al. [ 19 ] established an emissions reduction model in the supply chain to provide reference by selecting a reasonable carbon policy. Under carbon taxes, carbon caps and carbon trading policies

Unilateral Carbon Taxes, Border Tax Adjustments and Carbon Leakage Joshua Elliott, Ian Foster, Sam Kortum, Gita Khun Jush, Todd Munson and David Weisbach* We examine the impact of a unilateral carbon tax in developed countries, focusing on the expected size of carbon leakage (an increase in emissions in non-taxing regions as a result of the tax) and the effects on leakage of border tax adjustments. We start by analyzing the problem using a simple two-country, three-good general equilibrium model to develop intuitions. We then simulate the expected size

1 Introduction Russia is the third world’s largest emitter of carbon dioxide ( EIA 2011 ) and one of the world’s most carbon-intensive countries per capita and GDP. Nevertheless, Russia has a large potential to reduce energy intensity. A large energy saving potential can be realised through technical modernisation. Introducing carbon taxes would address concerns on several fronts simultaneously. In the short to medium term, carbon taxes would reduce CO 2 and other emissions (e.g., local air pollution) which are stemming from the use of energy commodities. In the

-1- The Economists’ Voice October, 2010 Comment on Nordhaus: Carbon Tax Calculations YORAM BAUMAN © Berkeley Electronic Press Dear Editors: William Nordhaus argues (“Carbon Taxes to Move Toward Fiscal Sus- tainability,” Sept 2010) that “most people are surprised to learn that the effect [of a carbon tax] on gasoline prices is relatively small.” This is true in general, but the spe- cific number cited by Nordhaus—that a tax of $25 per ton of carbon dioxide “would raise gasoline prices only 7 cents a gallon” —is a mistake, one that apparently came from a