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Neopterin, cellular adhesion molecules and myeolperoxidase in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris

Recent data indicate that the serum level of neopterin, a marker of inflammation and immune modulator secreted by monocytes/macrophages, is elevated in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and seems to be a prognostic marker for major cardiovascular events. Soluble cellular adhesion molecules (sCAMs) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels are also related to ACS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in serum levels of neopterin, sCAMs and MPO between coronary artery disease and metabolic syndrome (CAD-MetS) patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris (SAP, UAP), and to clarify the relationships between neopterin and other biomarkers. The study included 60 patients with CAD-MetS who were classified into two groups, 30 patients with SAP and 30 patients with UAP. Twenty healthy subjects were selected as controls (C). Serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), sE-selectin and MPO levels were measured by Luminex xMAP technology, and serum neopterin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: Serum levels of neopterin, MPO, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, and sE-selectin were significantly higher in patients with UAP in comparison with the group of healthy controls (P < 0.05). Patients with SAP also had higher levels of these biomarkers than those in healthy controls (P < 0.05), except for sE-selectin. The biomarker level did not differ between the two patient groups, except for MPO, which was significantly higher in the USP group (P < 0.05). Neopterin was significantly correlated only with sVCAM-1 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CAD-Met patients with SAP had more apparent raised levels of serum sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, simultaneously with higher MPO and neopterin concentrations, in comparison to those in healthy subjects. However, UAP is also associated with more substantial changes in MPO and significantly increased sE-selectin levels. Neopterin concentration was had a close correlation only with sVCAM-1.

high amount. Therefore, it is expected that patients with DM, whom generally are overweight and obese, have higher concentration of ADMA compared to the healthy people [ 11 ]. Moreover, ADMA induces nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway [ 12 ]. NF-κB is a transcription factor which regulates cytokines and chemokines production, immune responses, growth factors and adhesion molecules expression such as inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) [ 13 ]. ICAM-1 is a protein which is expressed in leukocytes and endothelial cells through NF-κB pathway. It plays an

disease; CAM, cellular adhesion molecule; DM, diabetes mellitus; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HT, hypertension; ICAM-1, intracellular adhesion molecule- 1; MI, myocardial infarction; LDL, low-density lipopro- tein; Lp(a), lipoprotein (a); TGF-β1, transforming growth factor-β1; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Introduction Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) is a multifunc- tional protein that has been implicated in the regula- tion of a variety of physiological processes including cell growth, differentiation, gene expression, wound healing and tissue

María de Lourdes Sánchez, Adrián Will, Andrea Rodríguez, Luis O. Gónzalez-Salcedo 1 A review of bone tissue engineering for the application of artificial intelligence in cellular adhesion prediction Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) is changing, at a fast pace, all aspects of sci- ence, technology, and society in general, giving rise to what is known as the 4th Industrial Revolution. In this chapter, we review the literature regarding AI applica- tions to bone tissue engineering, and more particularly, to cell adhesion in bone scaffolds. The works found are

A, Appleby P, et al. Low grade inflammation and coronary heart disease: prospective study and updated meta-anal- yses. Br Med J 2000;321:199–204. 4. Ridker PM, Buring JE, Shih J, Matias M, Hennekens CH. Prospective study of C-reactive protein and the risk of future cardiovascular events among apparently healthy women. Circulation 1998;98:731–3. 5. Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Roitman-Johnson B, Stamp- fer MJ, Allen J. Plasma concentration of soluble inter- cellular adhesion molecule 1 and risks of future myocar- dial infarction in apparently healthy men. Lancet 1998

Abstract

Washing soda has been identified as a precarious contaminant of the freshwater ponds and lakes, the natural habitat of Eunapius carteri. Treatment of sublethal concentrations of washing soda for 384 hours exhibited a significant decrease in the densities of blast like cells, small and large amoebocytes. The percentage occurrence of granular cells and archaeocytes yielded a marked increase against the experimental concentrations of washing soda. Washing soda mediated alterations in the differential cell densities of E. carteri indicative of a state of physiological stress and an undesirable shift in the cellular homeostasis of the organism distributed in polluted environment. Experimental exposure of washing soda yielded a significant increase in the cellular dimensions of large amoebocytes and archaeocytes. Prolonged treatment with washing soda presented a gross reduction in nonself surface adhesion efficacy of E. carteri cells. Experimental concentrations of washing soda resulted in a dose dependent increment in the frequencies of binucleation and micronucleation in the cells of E. carteri. The data were indicative of a high level of genotoxicity of washing soda in E. carteri. The present investigation provides an important information base in understanding the toxin induced chemical stress on the archaic immune defense of a primitive urmetazoa.

larger cell aggregates than controls. A possible role of VCN exposed receptor sites in cellular adhesion is suggested. Until very recently cell fusion, to obtain homo- and hetero-karyocytes, was usually performed using sendai virus as an inducing agent. Lucy 2 formulated a hypothesis on cell fusion based on membrane fusion induced by lysolecithin and vitamin A. Poole and colleagues 3 investigated the effect of egg-lyso- lecithin (ELL) on avian erythrocytes and could actually get multinucleated cells. Lysolecithin in­ duced cell fusion was also observed in

approximately 90% porosity. Increasing the diameter of fibers (Figure 1C ) after immobilization of gelatin-heparin was not an unexpected result due to covering the surface of PU fibers after soaking in the gelatin-heparin solution. Besides, in PGHE scaffolds, the outer surface is composed of electrospun gelatin-heparin fibers. The presence of gelatin decreases the final diameter of fibers by increasing the charge density of the polymeric solution as Meng et al. ( 27 ) observed. As the final diameter of fibers plays a remarkable role in cellular adhesion, migration and

as a cell adhesion molecule (50, 51). It was shown that expression of Nrp1 conferred adhesiveness to fibroblasts through heterophilic interaction with a protease-sensitive molecule (51). The adhesive function of Nrp was later mapped to the b1b2 coagulation factor domains (52), and subsequent studies demonstrated that the identified region within domain b2 was also responsible for GAG binding (53). In addition to GAG-dependent adhesion, Nrp can couple with other cell surface receptors to modulate cellular adhesion. Specifically, Nrp has been demonstrated to modulate

limitation that the manuscript lacks in-vitro dynamic and in-vivo experiments contributing to the understanding of physiological endothelialization of functional cardiovascular implants. Quite the contrary, the manuscripts highlights the incomplete basic knowledge regarding the mechanisms in cellular adhesion, cell junction and physiological basement membrane development at the endothelial cell-to-scaffold substrate interface. The direct sprayed cell seeding concept represents a technology that in principle could be adapted from high throughput analyses on biological and