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STRUCTURE / SOCIAL CHANCE - History 521. De Klerk, Vivian and Bosch, Barbara. Nicknaming among Xhosa-speaking children and adolescents. South African Journal ofAfrican languages (Pretoria), J2, 3, 1997, p.95-99, tables, English resume. PERSONAL NAMES; FAMILY; CHILDREN; YOUTH 522. De Soysa, Sharya. Resolving custody disputes between married parents in Roman-Dutch jurisdictions: will English law continue to be relevant? Comparative and international Journal of Southern Africa (Pretoria), 26, 3, 1993, p.364-375. MARRIAGE / CHILDREN - Legal aspects; LAW 523. Desai, Ashwin and

chance), history of previous vaginal birth (increases the chance), and dilatation at admission (the greater, the greater the chance) as continuous variable. For the score to be applied three hours later, were utilized: presence of hypertensive disease, fundal height as continuous variable, membrane status (ruptured increases the chance) and difference in dilatation as continuous variable (the greater, the greater the chance), both three hours after admission. Both scores showed good performance in the received-operator curve: area under curve of 73% for the one

just before the great divide of World War II he begins to write an idyllic, sophisticated kind of verse, smooth yet crisp, full of classicist attitudes and pas­ toral moods, which will persist, albeit in increasingly tenser form, through the first postwar books like Dietro U paesaggio (Behind the Landscape) of 1951 and Elegia e altri versi (Elegy and Other Verse) of 1954, well into part of Vocativo (Vocative) of 1957. But milieu and heritage can go only so far. The rest is—Ie hasard\ no throw of the dice, of course, will ever abolish chance. History always

pattern inherent in the original unity. The Naturphi- losophen believed that the plant and animal kingdoms each developed as the metamorphoses of a primordial archetype; thus the comparative anatomist Lorenz Oken postulated a vertebrate archetype meant to rep- resent the under lying unity of all animals with backbones. The attempts of this movement to combine modern science with idealist metaphysics produced very mixed results. Oken’s experimental contributions to comparative anatomy earned him a place in the 58 The Discovery of Chance history of biology and

speeds determined by oppor- tunity and by rate of evolutionary change. The conclusion is that the ranges of plants frequently reflect a chance history of migration related to the vagaries of opportunity, competition, and disturbances such as fire. Similarly, vegetation- the observable areal aggregations of plants-contains an element of chance, and expresses in its more or less haphazard groupings the continuing, dynamic evolution and migration of plants. Therefore it is a mistake to look for close relationships between plant distributions and climate or soils

could be exercised by one man against the action of fate, fortune, or chance. History provided a wealth of examples for understanding what the great individual could accom- plish as well as how far his achievement was circumscribed by factors beyond his control. Discussions of the nature and use of history from Salutati to Machiavelli emphasize [ 4 2 ] I N D I V I D U A L I S M I N H I S T O R I A N S its exemplary value and the example is more commonly applied to the course of action of an individual than to an institution or to a social group.6 One of the

implied the existence of two kinds of allegory, for what is to keep a poet from projecting allegorical meanings as idols in the respect that they are idols in contrast to a philosopher’s use of allegory as a means of expressing a truth he wishes to maintain? Mazzoni said that fantastic poetry, which is pure poetry, can be considered either in terms of its genesis or as a finished product. If a poem has its genesis in the fantasy, it is fantastic. At the same time, by chance history may coincide with an invented action; that is, one with origin in the fan- tasy .21 Dante

. Smith, and L. B. Slobodkin. 1960. Community structure, population control, and competition. American Naturalist 94:421– 44. Holt, R. D. 1977. Predation, apparent competition and the structure of prey communities. Theoretical Population Biology 12:197– 229. ———. 1996. Food webs in space: An island biogeographic perspective. In Food Webs: Integration of Pattern and Pro cess, ed. G. A. Polis and K. O. Winemiller, 313– 23. New York: Chapman and Hall. Hurtt, G. C., and S. W. Pacala. 1995. The consequences of recruitment limita- tion: Reconciling chance, history, and

–627. Huisman, J., and F. J. Weissing. 1999. Biodiversity of plankton by species oscilla- tions and chaos. Nature 402:407–410. Hurtt, G. C., and S. W. Pacala. 1995. The consequences of recruitment limitation: reconciling chance, history and competitive differences between plants. Journal of Theoretical Biology 176:1–12. Huston, M. A. 1979. A general hypothesis of species diversity. American Natural- ist 113:81–101. ———. 1997. Hidden treatments in ecological experiments: re-evaluating the eco- system function of biodiversity. Oecologia 110:449–460. Huston, M. A., D

–19. (Chap. 1) Hurtt, G. C., and S. W. Pacala. 1995. The consequences of recruit- ment limitation: Reconciling chance, history, and competitive differences between plants. Journal of Theoretical Biology 176: 1–12. (Chaps. 3, 7, 10) 355 L ITERATURE CITED Huston, M. A. 1994. Biological Diversity: The Coexistence of Species on Changing Landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. (Chap. 1) Jablonski, D. 1995. Extinctions in the fossil record. Pp. 25–44 in J. H. Lawton and R. M. May, eds., Extinction Rates. Oxford Uni- versity Press, Oxford. (Chap. 10) Jackson, J