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Introduction Daily cycles of light and darkness on Earth have led to the development of highly conserved anticipatory signalling processes, which are crucial to prepare most organisms from bacteria to human beings for the coming of the day and the night (1). These processes couple environmental light/darkness to biological functions and are naturally oscillating with a period of close to 24 h, thus collectively known as circadian rhythms (circa: about; diem: a day). Multiple aspects of mammalian physiology are under circadian regulation. The most obvious

[1] J.C. Dunlap: “Molecular bases for circadian clocks”, Cell, Vol. 96, (1999), pp. 271–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80566-8 [2] C.F. Ehret and J.J. Wille: “Photobiology of microorganisms”, Halldal, P. (Ed.), Wiley, New York (USA), 1970, pp. 369–416. [3] C.H. Johnson, S.S. Golden, M. Ishiura and T. Kondo: “Circadian clocks in prokaryotes”, Mol. Microbiol., Vol. 21, (1996), pp. 5–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2958.1996.00613.x [4] M.W. Young and S.A. Kay: “Time zones: a comparative genetics of circadian clocks”, Nat. Rev. Genet., Vol. 2

Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering 2017; 3(2): 569–572 Thomas Schnupp*, Christian Heinze, and Martin Golz Circadian rhythmicity of cognitive performance Evaluated during a 50-hour ultrashort sleep-wake schedule Abstract: It was investigated whether cognitive performance shows a circadian rhythm during a 50 h-long forced desynchrony sleep-wake-schedule. We asked whether it would be possible to estimate the circadian period of cognitive performance under such circumstances and how strong it correlates to subjective sleepiness rating as well as

Free-Running Human Circadian Rhythms in Svalbard A. Johnsson *, W. Engelmann **, W. Klemke **, and Aud Tveito Ekse * * Institute of Physics/NLHT, University of Trondheim, N-7000 Trondheim, Norway ** Institut für Biologie I, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 1, D-7400 Tübingen, FRG Z. Naturforsch. 34 c, 470 — 473 (1979) ; received March 13, 1979 Circadian Rhythms, Body Temperature, Activity, Urine Electrolytes, Humans, Svalbard-Spitsbergen The body temperature, activity-rest time, electrolytes of urine samples and mood was measured in two persons during

[1] d’Ortous de Mairan J.J., Botanical observation, History of the Royal Academy of Science [Observation botanique, Histoire de l’Academie Royale des Science], de l’Imprimerie Royale, 1729, 35–36 (in French) [2] Dunlap J.C., Loros J.J., Decoursey P.J., Chronobiology: Biological Timekeeping, Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland, 2004 [3] Edmunds L.N. Cellular and Molecular Bases of Biological Clocks: Models and Mechanisms for Circadian Timekeeping, Springer, New York, 1987 [4] Halberg F., Halberg E., Barnum C.P., Bittner J.J., Physiologic 24-hour periodicity in

-229. 4. Drust B., Waterhouse J., Atkinson G., Edwards B., Reilly T. (2005). Circadian rhythms in sports performance-an update. Chronobiology International 22(1), 21-44. 5. Bessot N., Nicolas A., Moussay S., Gauthier A., Sesboüé B., Davenne D. (2006). The effect of pedal rate and time of day on the time to exhaustion from high intensity exercise. Chronobiology International 23(5), 1009-1024. 6. Bernard T., Giacomoni M., Gavarry O., Seymat M., Falgairette G. (1997). Time-of-day effects in maximal anaerobic leg exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology and

[1] Murray, J.D., Mathematical Biology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/b98869 [2] Goldbeter, A., Biochemical Oscillations and Cellular Rhythms: The molecular bases of periodic and chaotic behaviour, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1996 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511608193 [3] Shearman L.P., Sriram S., Weaver D.R., Maywood E.S., Chaves I., Zheng B. et al., Interacting molecular loops in the mammalian circadian clock, Science, 2002, 288, 1013–1019 http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.288.5468.1013 [4] Hastings M

W. Engelmann • A Slowing Down of Circadian Rhythms by Lithium Ions 733 A Slowing Down of Circadian Rhythms by Lithium Ions Wolfgang Engelmann Institut für Biologie, Tübingen (Z. Naturforsch. 28 c, 733 — 736 [1973] ; received July 16, 1973) Circadian rhythm, lithium, Kalanchoe, Meriones, depression Unter the permanent influence of lithium ions the circadian rhythm of movement of Kalanchoe petals is effectively lengthened but a pulse administered up to 12 hours has no influence. Lithium ions could also be demonstrated to similarly slow down the circadian

J. Perinat. Med. 37 (2009) 413–417 • Copyright by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • New York. DOI 10.1515/JPM.2009.067 Article in press - uncorrected proof Circadian variation on oxygen consumption in preterm infants Jacqueline Bauer1,*, Andreas Janecke2, Joachim Gerss3, Katja Masjosthusmann1, Claudius Werner1 and Georg Hoffmann4 1 Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster, Germany 2 Institute of Medical Biology and Human Genetics, University of Innsbruck, Austria 3 Institute of Medical Informatics and Biomathematics, University of Muenster

[1] de Mairan J., Observation botanique, Histoire de l’Academie Royale des Science, 1729, 35–36 (in French) [2] Mackey S.R., Golden S.S., Winding up the cyanobacterial circadian clock, Trends Microbiol., 2007, 15, 381–388 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2007.08.005 [3] Brunner M., Káldi K., Interlocked feedback loops of the circadian clock of Neurospora crassa, Mol. Microbiol., 2008, 68, 255–262 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06148.x [4] Benito J., Zheng H., Ng F.S., Hardin P.E., Transcriptional feedback loop regulation, function, and ontogeny in