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252 12 Coda Acquisition in Childhood Apraxia of Speech in Hebrew Gila Tubul-Lavy Introduction Coda acquisition among Hebrew-speaking children with typical phonological development (TD) occurs between 2;6-4;0 years (Ben- David, 2015). Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a neurological childhood speech sound disorder resulting in poor speech intelligibility (ASHA, 2007). Currently, a lack of consensus exists regarding the specific phonological and motoric characteristics of this population, making early diagnosis a complex task. This chapter aims to

children are very closely attuned to the frequency patterns of prosodic structure in the input language and are aware of their specific distributions across the lexicon. Keywords: coda acquisition, syllabic structure, frequency effects, prominence effects Joan Borràs-Comes: Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Departament de Traducció i Ciències del Llenguatge, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: joan.borras@upf.edu Pilar Prieto: Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Departament de Traducció i Ciències del Llenguatge, Barcelona, Spain. E

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-Impaired Children: A Usage-Based Corpus Analysis of Russian Preschoolers 201 Aleksandr N. Kornev and Ingrida Balčiūnienė 11 Early Diagnostic Signs of Autism: Preliminary Findings for Infant Vocalizations 229 Shari DeVeney and Anastasia Kyvelidou 12 Coda Acquisition in Childhood Apraxia of Speech in Hebrew 252 Gila Tubul-Lavy 13 The Acquisition of Phonological Awareness in Children with Mild General Learning Difficulties: Delayed or Disordered Speech Development? 274 Krisztina Zajdó and Enikő Csertán 14 Static Versus Dynamic Screening of Phonological Awareness

marked. In order for codas to emerge, a certain parameter has to be set, i.e., the branching of the rhyme (Fikkert 1994), or markedness constraints have to be demoted, i.e., the coda constraint becomes outranked by faithfulness (Gnanadesikan 1995, Smolensky 1996). In spite of this general agreement on universal principles, coda acquisition is one of the most variegated phenomena, characterized by an enormous amount of differing appearances and individual variation. Accordingly, some German children produce codas from the very beginning (Grijzenhout and Joppen 1999

acquisition 253, 255–256, 261, 265, 267–268 final coda acquisition 252–253, 255–257, 260–264, 266, 268 medial coda acquisition 255–157, 261, 264, 266–267 voicing 127–128 order of acquisition 7, 31, 35, 63, 79, 82, 90, 93, 156, 158, 245, 275–276, 284, 308–310, 315–316, 423–424, 428–430 phonotactic 154–159 typical v, 4, 9, 10, 29, 31, 40, 42, 46, 55, 67, 86, 107, 131, 155, 179, 181, 182, 187, 189, 193, 201, 279, 324, 338–339, 350 Age acquisition age 64, 80, 88–90 customary age 80, 88 mastery age 80, 88 Articulatory 42, 44, 154, 201, 202, 204, 223, 258, 165, 351

.), 597-608. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press Stites, Jessica, Katherine Demuth & Cecilia Kirk 2004 Markedness versus frequency effects in coda acquisition. In Pro- ceedings of the 28th Annual Boston University Conference on Lan- guage Development, Alejna Brugos, Linnea Micciulla & Christine E. Smith (eds.), 565-576. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. Tremblay, Annie & Katherine Demuth 2007 Prosodic licensing of determiners in children's early French. In Pro- ceedings of the 2nd Conference on Generative Approaches to Lan- guage Acquisition North America (GALANA), Alyona

. The follow- ing scale is adopted from Hogg and McCully (1987). Sonority sequencing principle has been shown to be influential in several aspects of developmental patterns in first and second language phonologies including onset and coda acquisitions (Yavaş, 2003). The appeal to sonority is not only to separate what is natural (expected) from unnatural (unexpected), but also to distinguish the relative degree of naturalness. The greater the sonority distance is between the members of a cluster, the more natural the sequence is. With respect to two-member codas, a

phonological therapy. Conclusion This volume attempted to set up a paradigm for identifying develop- mental universals and language-specific features in phonological 448 Part 4: Coda acquisition. By systematically comparing the data from normally and aty- pically developing multilingual children including monolingual and bilingual children, it derived a set of similarities in the phonological acquisition of children with various language backgrounds that will, in turn, become candidates for developmental universals. It is primarily for this purpose of cross

affects order of acquisition by place of articulation, and that front consonants are easier to acquire than back consonants. Grammatical conditioning affects coda acquisition as well. In research on Mandarin Chinese speakers learning L2 Swedish, Abrahamsson (2001) found that deletion of /r/ in codas was connected to grammatical category. In Swedish, -er, Developmental Sequences and Constraints       63 -or and -ar function as plural suffixes, such as in bilar (cars). Abrahamsson found more /r/ deletion in these suffixes than in words where /r/ was part of the mor

single position both at the onset and at the rhyme. This very simple structure (represented in Figure 2a for a syllable like Thee) is soon followed by syllables with branching rhymes, once this one default is substituted by fixing its value to vowel+coda. Onset can be fixed to branching, too, and so can coda be branching as well, as in krank [kʀaŋk] (repre- sented in Figure 2b) with branching onset, branching rhyme and branching coda. Acquisition of speech sound   147 Fig. 1: Representation of the German target words Strand and kaputt, and their simplified