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Abstract

Michel Foucault’s (1926–1984) thought is widely used in the humanities and social sciences for investigating experiences of madness, illness, marginalization and social conflicts. However, the meaning of the word “experience” is not always clearly defined, and the French word expérience has a whole variety of meanings. In this article I explicate Foucault’s most relevant concepts of experience and their theoretical functions. He refers to experience throughout his career, especially in his early texts on existential psychiatry from the 1950s and 1960s and in his late work from the 1980s. Texts such as Mental Illness and Psychology and Dire vrai sur soi-même have received less attention than Foucault’s most famous books, but they show that references to experience form significant theoretical and thematic links between his earlier investigations of mental distress and his late work on ethics. When Foucault reorganizes his work in the 1980s, he looks back to his early work in his search for a new concept of experience. I argue that in these contexts, experience cannot be understood as an outcome of activity that organizes perceptions and leads to objective knowledge, but experiences are not defined as events produced by discourses, either. I demonstrate in this article how Foucault uses the concept of experience to structure his research on ethical subjectivity and cultural practices of care. At the same time the article questions some standard interpretations of his work.

. Students in two Canadian schools of nurs- ing described being a nursing student as bounded by unwritten and largely invisible expectations of homogeneity in the context of a predominant discourse of equality and cultural sensitivity. At the same time, they witnessed many incidents, both personally and those directed toward other individuals of the same culture, of clinical teachers problematizing difference and centering on difference as less than the expected norm. This complex and often contradictory experience of difference and homogeneity contributed to their

Civility and Dispossession in the New Saigon
From Household and Factory to the Union Hall and Ballot Box

their environment. Behaviors and attitudes that are atypical and particularly dangerous for an adolescent are, to a disinterested observer, difficult to identify, largely due to the wide range of diverse and contradictory experiences and behaviors typical for a young person. Apparently aggressive and destructive actions may turn out to be a direct effect of depressive experiences caused by the dysfunctional family environment. James Garbarino (11) claims that what differ- entiates adolescents with depression from adolescents with depression-based behavioral disorders

. In this view, if a belief is not rejected in the face of contradictory experience, the belief ceases to be empirically based. Moreover, Popper claimed the possibility of falsifying a belief as a demarcation criterion for science. Popper 2005 , p. 17. Whereas scientific observations could refute a belief if they provided contrary evidence, if such evidence did not result in a change of belief it amounted to no more than an ‘interpretation’ of the observations in light of the belief. Popper 1989 , p. 38, fn. 3. Popper regarded some disciplines to be inherently

induction can be related to dicent indexical sinsign. While the abduction that precedes this class (rhematic indexical sinsign) presents a possibility of evidence, in induction we have the presentation of an evidence. This degree of induction seems to be related to what Peirce called raw induction and possesses a very low degree of probative strength. Future predictions in this inductive process are based on past experiences, which greatly weakens induction, since a single contradictory experience would annihilate the proposition. The second degree of induction can be

-292. Kaufman, Michael (1994): Men, Feminism, and Men's Contradictory Experience of Power. In: Brod, Harry / Kaufman Mich- ael (Hrsg.): Theorizing Masculinités. Thousand Oaks/ London/ New Dehli, S. 142-163. Kersten, Joachim/Steinert, Hein (Hrsg.) (1997): Starke Typen. Iron Mike, Dirty Harry, Crocodile Dundee und der Alltag von Männlichkeit. Baden-Baden. Kimmel, Michael (1994): Masculinity as Ho- mophobia: Fear, Shame and Silence in the Construction of Gender Identity. In: Brod, Harry/Kaufmann, Michael (Hrsg.): Theo- rizing Masculinities. Thousand Oaks/ London

’. Gender, Work and Organization 20 2 147 56 10.1111/gwao.12016 Rutten, M., and S. Verstappen. 2014. ‘Middling migration: Contradictory experiences of Indian youths in London.’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 40 (8): 1217–35. doi: 10.1080/1369183X.2013.830884 . Rutten M. Verstappen S. 2014 ‘Middling migration: Contradictory experiences of Indian youths in London.’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 40 8 1217 35 10.1080/1369183X.2013.830884 Sassen, S. 1988. The Mobility of Capital and Labour: A Study in International Investment and Labour Flow . Cambridge

"placental risk" (Tab. ) and the hormonal Status (Tab. I) äs well äs between mean birth weight and hormonal Status (Tab. I). Thus, it has been further proven that pregnanediol excretion äs determined by our method [20] represents a very sensitive early indicator of decreased nutritive placental function. This result is the more sur- prising since most authors [l, 8,11 and others] do not consider pregnanediol excretion äs a suitable indicator of nutritive placental function. Whether the contradictory experiences of other authors with pregnanediol are based on the variations