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Salting and Post-salting Stages of PSE Thawed Hams," International Journal of Food Engineering: Vol. 3: Iss. 5, Article 11. DOI: 10.2202/1556-3758.1142 Study of the Influence of Product and Process Variables in the Salting and Post-salting Stages of PSE Thawed Hams Raul Grau, William Albarracin, Gonzalo Clemente, and Jose Manuel Barat Abstract The use of thawed raw material is becoming more frequent in the cured ham processing industry. At the same time, the incidence of PSE meat in the raw material can be very important. The aim of this work was to characterise the

References Arnau J., Guerrol L., Gou P. (1998). Effect of meat p Hand the amount of added nitrite and nitrate on colour uniformity of cured hams. Proc. 44th ICo MST, Barcelona Spain II 986. Baryłko - Pikielna N., Matuszewska I. (2014). Sensory Testing of Foods. Basics. Methods. Applications (in Polish). 2nd ed. Wyd. Nauk. PTTŻ, Kraków. Borzuta K., Rasmussen M.K., Borys A., Lisiak D., Olsen E.K., Strzelecki J., Kien S., Winarski R., Piotrowski E., Grześkowiak E., Pospiech E. (2004). Study of the regression equations for estimating the lean meat content of pig

1 Introduction Jinhua ham is one of the most popular dry-cured hams in China and Southeast Asia, and its volatile compounds have been studied [ 1 , 2 ]. However, few studies have focused on the major flavor components. Gas chromatography (GC)/olfaction is currently considered a powerful tool to identify the potent odorants in food products [ 3 ]. It can be classified into different methods including dilution techniques such as aroma extract dilution analysis and charm analysis, Osmium (OSME, a Greek word meaning “smell”) and detection frequency [ 4 ]. The

Abstract

Introduction: The purpose of the study was to determine and model the growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cooked cured ham stored at various temperatures.

Material and Methods: Samples of cured ham were artificially contaminated with a mixture of three L. monocytogenes strains and stored at 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15°C for 16 days. The number of listeriae was determined after 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14, and 16 days. A series of decimal dilutions were prepared from each sample and plated onto ALOA agar, after which the plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h under aerobic conditions. The bacterial counts were logarithmised and analysed statistically. Five repetitions of the experiment were performed.

Results: Both storage temperature and time were found to significantly influence the growth rate of listeriae (P < 0.01). The test bacteria growth curves were fitted to three primary models: the Gompertz, Baranyi, and logistic. The mean square error (MSE) and Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) were calculated to evaluate the goodness of fit. It transpired that the logistic model fit the experimental data best. The natural logarithms of L. monocytogenes’ mean growth rates from this model were fitted to two secondary models: the square root and polynomial.

Conclusion: Modelling in both secondary types can predict the growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cooked cured ham stored at each studied temperature, but mathematical validation showed the polynomial model to be more accurate.

References Benedini R., Parolari G., Toscani T., Virgili R. (2012). Sensory and texture properties of Italian typical dry-cured hams as related to maturation time and salt content. Meat Sci., 90: 431-137. Breene W.M. (1975). Application of texture profile analysis to instrumental food texture evaluation. J. Texture Stud., 6: 53-82. Carrapiso A.I., Garcia C. (2005). Instrumental colour of Iberian ham subcutaneous fat and lean (biceps femoris): Influence of crossbreeding and rearing system. Meat Sci., 71: 284-290. Carrapiso A.I., Bonilla F., Garcia C. (2003

References AMSA (1995). Research Guidelines for Cookery, Sensory Evaluation and Instrumental Tenderness Measurements of Fresh Meat. American Meat Science Association, Chicago, IL. Belew J.B., Brooks J.C., Mc Kenna D.R., Savell J.W. (2003). Warner-Bratzler shear evaluations of 40 bovine muscles. Meat Sci., 64: 507-512. Bermúdez R., Franco I., Franco D., Carballo J., Lorenzo J.M. (2012). Influence of inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on fatty acid profile of dry-cured ham from Celta pig breed. Meat Sci., 92: 394-399. Bermúdez R., Franco D., Carballo J

of them for developing t.l.c. plates. Separation of the inter- fering substances of meat extracts from aflatoxins and resolution of four aflatoxins (Bl' B 2 , G 1 and G 2 ) were obtaincd when a combination of hexane, petroleum ether, benzcne, chloroform and acetonewas used. ----------- INTRODUCTTON Somc A. flavu.s strains are toxinogenic. They can grow on severa1 mcat products especially on durable fermcntcd sausages and smoked meats. Salami and smokcd cured hams are foods that fal1 into this category. Moulds from fermented sausages obtained in the USA

-ratio software for improved feature selection analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry data. Talanta, 115: 887–895. Nam K.C., Ahn D. (2003). Combination of aerobic and vacuum packaging to control lipid oxidation and off-odor volatiles of irradiated raw turkey breast. Meat Sci., 63: 389–395. Narváez - Rivas M., Gallardo E., Ríos J.J., León - Camacho M. (2010). A tentative characterization of volatile compounds from Iberian Dry-Cured Ham according to different anatomical locations. A detailed study. Grasas Aceites, 61: 369

., 19. (1994) 429-432. [13] M. F. Patterson, M. Quinn, R. K. Simpson, A. Gilmour, Sensitivity of vegetative pathogens to high hydrostatic pressure treatment in phosphate buffered saline and foods. J. Food Protect., 58. (1995) 524-529. [14] H. Chen, Temperature assisted pressure inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in turkey breast meat. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 117. (2007) 55-60. [15] P. Morales, J. Calzada, M. Nunez, Effect of high pressure treatment on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A in sliced vacuum-packaged Iberian and serrano cured hams. J. Food

References An J.Y., Zheng J.X., Li J.Y., Zeng D., Qu L.J., Xu G.Y., Yang N. (2010). Effect of myofiber characteristics and thickness of perimysium and endomysium on meat tenderness of chickens. Poultry Sci., 89: 1750–1754. AOAC(2005). Official Methods of Analysis. 18th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA. Bañón S., Gil M.D., Garrido M.D. (2003). The effects of castration on the eating quality of dry-cured ham. Meat Sci., 65: 1031–1037. Bruns K.W., Pitchard R.H., Boggs D.L. (2004). The relationships among body composition