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References Bahcall J. N. 1984, ApJ, 276, 169 Bahcall J. N. 1987, in IAU Symposium, Vol. 117, Dark matter in the universe, ed. J. Kormendy & G. R. Knapp, 17-27 Bahcall J. N., Sarazin C. L. 1977, ApJ, 213, L99 Blumenthal G. R., Pagels H., Primack J. R. 1982, Nature, 299, 37 Blumenthal G. R., Faber S. M., Primack J. R. et al. 1984, Nature, 311, 517 Bond J. R., Kofman L., Pogosyan D. 1996, Nature, 380, 603 Bosma A. 1978, PhD thesis, Groningen Univ. Doroshkevich A. G., Joeveer M., Einasto J. 1975, AZh, 52, 1113 Eelsalu, H. 1959, Tartu Astr. Obs. Publ., 33, 153 Einasto

[1] F. Zwicky: “Die Rotverschiebung von extragalaktischen Nebeln”, Helv. Phys. Acta., Vol. 6, (1933), pp. 110–127. [2] D. Clowe, M. Bradac, A. H. Gonzalez, M. Markevitch, S. W. Randall, C. Jones and D. Zaritsky: “A direct empirical proof of the existence of dark matter”, Preprint: arXiv:astro-ph/0608407. [3] F. Combes, P. Boissé, A. Mazure and A. Blanchard: Galaxies and Cosmology, 2nd ed., Springer, New York, 2002. [4] J. Binney and S. Tremaine: Galactic Dynamics, Princeton University Press, 1994. [5] M. Milgrom: “A modification of the newtonian dynamics as a

References Ahearne, A., Cline, W. R., Lee, K. T., Park, Y. C., Pisani-Ferry, J., & Williamson, J. (2007). Global imbalances: Time for action . Policy Brief No. PB 07-4: Peterson Institute for International Economics. Ali, M. (2016). Dark matter, black holes and old-fashioned exploitation: Transnational corporations and the US economy. Cambridge Journal of Economics , 40 (4), 997-1018. Altman, E. I., & Kuehne, B. J. (2016). Credit markets and bubbles: Is the benign credit cycle over?. Economics and Business Review , 2 (3), 20-31. Ayres, J. (2018). Firm

On the Surveillance of Blackness

Abstract

The model of the galaxy is considered as a structure of the baryonic matter embedded into the hot dark matter. The dark matter is supposed to come into being from the decaying matter after the epoch of structure formation. The galaxy is divided into two regions. In the inner region, the baryonic matter predominates over the hot dark matter while in the outer region, the hot dark matter predominates over the baryonic matter. The motion of the test particle is bounded in the inner region (elliptic orbit) and unbounded in the outer region (parabolic orbit). Observational constraints on the proposed model are considered from the rotation curves of the galaxies: Milky Way, M33, NGC 2366 and IC 2574.

distances, but not for small distances, is given by Eingorn et al. [ 5 ], demonstrating a Yukawa-type exponential screening of the gravitational potential at distances > λ [ λ being due to the existence of cold dark matter (DM)] termed the cosmic screening by the authors who found the cosmic background to be responsible for this type of screening. Their results are consistent with the largest known structure in the universe, the Great GRB Wall (or Hercules Corona Borealis Great Wall), with the size of the order of 3000 Mpc. It should be mentioned that these results

The Development of Peer-to-Peer Lending and Banking in France

C H A P T E R 11 P A R T I C L E D A R K M A T T E R DAVID SPERGEL Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ , and Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD ABSTRACT The nature of the dark matter that comprises most of the mass of our Galaxy and other galaxies is one of the great unsolved problems of astrophysics. Arguments that suggest that this dark matter is non-baryonic include: the absence of baryonic candidates; the need for dark matter to form galaxies; and the low baryon densities inferred

115 N early half a mile beneath the surface of the Earth, within a cavern of an old iron- ore mine in northeastern Minnesota, special detectors cooled almost to absolute zero (–459.67 de- grees Fahrenheit) are on the lookout. They serve the Cryo- genic Dark Matter Search (CDMS), one of several projects around the world attempting to fi nd a novel type of matter that has been long hypothesized but never seen. New particle physics theories, beyond the so- called standard model, sug- gest that all around us could be ghostly particles that blithely whiz through

. . . C H a P t e r 2 2 . . . Dark Matter For R > 8.5 kpc, the stellar curve is flat, and does not decrease as expected for Keplerian orbits. —Vera Rubin, in “Kinematic Studies of Early Type Stars. I. Photo- metric Survey, Space Motions, and Comparison with Radio Observa- tions,” The Astronomical Journal (1962) The concept of dark matter is one of the most exciting, compelling, mysterious, and perhaps disturbing ideas that has emerged from mod- ern astrophysics. Besides being intriguing in its own right, dark matter has enormous implications for our