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PETR SGALL and JARMILA PANEVOVÄ DEPENDENCY SYNTAX - A CHALLENGE Dependency grammar, although now elaborated only by small groups of linguists, has several advantages if compared with the majority approaches, based on constituency and on categorial grammars: the dependency trees (and the corresponding representations covering also the relations of co- ordination and of apposition) are more economical than most kinds of P-markers; a perspicuous treatment of the topic-focus articulation is made possible, since word order is connected more directly with the scale of

Chapter 4 Dependency syntax This chapter describes a model of dependency syntax that, in my opinion, is well suited for the machine translation purpose I have in mind. However, the model is not meant to meet the needs of this particular application only, but is general in scope. Yet, since syntactic theory in many details requires arbitrary choices among equally feasible alternatives, I have to make decisions. The options I choose in this study have to do with the requirements of translation, and in particular, of machine translation. The goal of

A dependency syntax of Polish Marek Éwidzinski Warsaw, Poland 1. Some facts about Polish Polish belongs to the group of West-Slavic languages, together with Czech, Slovak, Lower-, and Upper-Sorbian. Typologically, it is a representative of highly inflecting languages, like Latin or French, and unlike English or Chinese. Its syntax is, then, morphology-based; consequently, word order in Polish can be considered (relatively) free. An average lexical item (henceforth: LX) is exactly a set of wordforms (henceforth: wf), differing in shape, grammatical

A dependency syntax of German Henning Lobin Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany 1. The German language: some general remarks German is an inflected language with a rich morphology for derivation purposes. Nouns and adjectives derived from verbs with an extensive valency can function as the heads of very extensive phrases. In phrases of this kind, a lot of dependents precede the head. The derivation of the valency of such nouns or adjectives can be described in general by the use of valency transformations. For German syntax, the word order is a typical

A dependency syntax of Esperanto Klaus Schubert Utrecht, Netherlands 1. Esperanto for people and Esperanto for computers This article offers a dependency syntax of Esperanto. Like all the syntax descriptions in this volume, it is written within the framework of the model of dependency syntax developed for the DLT machine translation system. Among the languages dealt with in the DLT project and in this volume, Esperanto occupies a special position in that it is not one of DLT's source or target languages, but rather its intermediate language (IL). None of

A dependency syntax of Danish Ingrid Schubert Utrecht, Netherlands 1. Introduction This dependency syntax of Danish was written in the framework of the syntax model adopted for the DLT machine translation project. It accounts for the combinability of Danish words essentially in four steps, viz. (1) a definition of word classes, (2) a classification of the dependency relations among words (dependent types), (3) a specification of word class-specific dependencies and (4) a description of the syntactic shape in which the dependents can occur. Theoretically

A dependency syntax of Japanese Shigeru Sato Sendai, Japan 1. Introduction Japanese is not an Indo-European language, nor has it been linguistically demonstrated that it has a genetic kinship with other languages. It is easy to see, however, that there are a large number of morphosyntactic similarities it shares with Altaic languages such as Korean, Mongolian, Uzbek, and Turkish: (1) instead of nominal declensions, lexically independent case suffixes are attached to nouns; (2) instead of verbal inflections, agglutination of auxiliary elements is used to

A dependency syntax of Hungarian Gábor Prószéky Ilona Koutny Balázs Wacha Budapest, Hungary 1. Introduction 1.1. Main characteristics of the Hungarian language Hungarian belongs to the Finno-Ugric language family, whose other well-known representative is Finnish. The relation is obvious at the grammatical level, but very distant for vocabulary. Typologically it is generally considered to be an agglutinative language (like Finnish or Japanese). This means that grammatical roles like object or locative are often expressed by suffixes in Hungarian

A dependency syntax of Finnish Kalevi Tarvainen Jyväskylä, Finland 1. Introduction Finnish is one of the few non-Indo-European languages spoken in contemporary Europe. It belongs to the Finno-Ugric language family, having e.g., Hungarian as a distant, and Estonian as a close linguistic relative. Finnish is the native language of about 95% of Finland's population of circa 5 million. It is also one of the official languages, the other for historical reasons being Swedish, which is still spoken natively by circa 300,000 Finns (often called Finland Swedes