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Introduction: a brief history of the dopamine hypothesis The birth of the dopamine hypothesis came from the discovery, in animal experiments, that antipsychotic agents (neuroleptics) blocked dopamine receptors (Carlsson and Lindqvist, 1963). This was followed by further evidence showing that amphetamine produced psychotic symptoms. The hypothesis finally became influential in the 1970s, when studies found the correlation between clinical effectiveness and the affinity of antipsychotics for dopamine receptors (Seeman and Lee, 1975). The role of excessive

Dopamine Accumulation in Papaver somniferum Latex B. C. Homeyer and Margaret F. Roberts Department o f Pharmacognosy, The School o f Pharmacy, University o f London, 2 9 -3 9 Bruns­ wick Square, London, W C IN 1 AX Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 1034-1037 (1984); received July 2/August 10, 1984 Dopamine Accumulation, Latex, P. somniferum L., 1000 x g Organelles Organelles found in the 1000 x g fraction of latex taken from Papaver somniferum have been shown to accumulate dopamine to the exclusion o f other catecholam ines. D opam ine accum ula­ tion is both temperature

., and Kuhar, M. J. (1993) Neurotransmitter transporters: recent progress, Annu Rev Neurosci 16, 73–93. [12] Rocha, B. A., Fumagalli, F., Gainetdinov, R. R., Jones, S. R., Ator, R., Giros, B., Miller, G. W., and Caron, M. G. (1998) Cocaine self-administration in dopamine-transporter knockout mice, Nat Neurosci 1, 132–137. [13] Giros, B., Jaber, M., Jones, S. R., Wightman, R. M., and Caron, M. G. (1996) Hyperlocomotion and indifference to cocaine and amphetamine in mice lacking the dopamine transporter, Nature 379, 606–612. [14] Bernheimer, H., Birkmayer, W

Development of a New Immunosensor for the Detection of Dopamine Dina Fouad Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt. Fax: 0020882342708. E-mail: dinafouad93@hotmail.com Z. Naturforsch. 62c, 613Ð618 (2007); received January 18/March 1, 2007 Graphite immunoelectrodes as immunosensors using indirect immobilization of a hapten were investigated for their applicability to detect dopamine hydrochloride at low levels. Con- ditions were optimized to achieve the highest sensitivity using the indirect immobilization of dopamine

dopamine (DA) in ‘reward’ processes ( Datla et al., 2002 ; Burgdorf and Panksepp, 2006 ). However, recent evidence suggests that DA is also associated with mediating defensive behavior ( Bariselli et al., 2016 ). The involvement of DA in aversively motivated behavior was envisaged in the early 1960s by studies that used the model of the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) ( Posluns, 1962 ). In this test, rats emit a CAR to a learned sensory cue (e.g. a light) that signals the onset of punishing shock that is avoidable by moving to a safe place or by crossing to the

, 2006; Sharf et al., 2006; You et al., 2007), have looked at mechanisms in the VTA, the site of origin of this system, and these studies suggest a necessary role for VTA associative processes. In this article, we outline our VTA model of reward-related learning. This model is characterized as follows: (1) VTA DA neurons mediate unconditioned approach; (2) reward-related learning in the form of conditioned approach is dependent on a CS acquiring the ability to activate VTA dopamine (DA) neurons; (3) the acquisition of both conditioned approach and the ability of the CS

, 1514 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2006.07.007 [6] I.O. Iotov, S.V. Kalcheva, J. Electroanal. Chem. 442, 19 (1998) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0728(97)00455-5 [7] M. Velasco, A. Luchsinger, Dopamine: Pharmacologic and Therapeutic Aspects, Am. J. Ther. 5, 37 (1998) http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00045391-199801000-00007 [8] A. Safavi, N. Maleki, O. Moradlou, F. Tajabadi, Analytical Biochemistry 359, 224 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2006.09.008 [9] R.M. Wightman, L.J. May, A.C. Michael, Anal. Chem. 60, 769A (1988) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac00164a

Introduction Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) occurs shortly after delivery and presents as respiratory distress in infants who have inadequate neonatal lung fluid clearance. The estimated incidence of TTN is 1–2% and it generally has a good prognosis. However, the development of respiratory failure and air leakage is common. Apart from respiratory support, there is no effective treatment [ 1 – 4 ]. Dopamine acts on different receptors in a dose-dependent manner. Low doses (2–5 μg/kg/min) are considered the “renal doses”. It has been assumed that, at a

[ 6 ]. In contrast, elevated metanephrines can be detected only in a minority of patients with a HNPGL [ 7 ]. Therefore, there is a need for novel biochemical tests that would be useful for diagnosing HNPGLs, and for the follow-up of these patients. Ideally, such a test would also facilitate early detection of a HNPGL, especially in SDHx mutation carriers. Previous studies have demonstrated that HNPGLs are able to synthesize dopamine. Excess dopamine secretion, measured as elevated dopamine and/or its 3-O-methylated metabolite 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) in urine and

[NAc]), different cortical areas, e.g. insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and other areas are involved in the processing of nociceptive information ( Basbaum et al., 2009 ). Oxytocin (OT) and dopamine (DA) are key molecules in many brain functions. Their role in nociception has been well documented in various parts of the central nervous system (CNS) ( Wood, 2008 ; González-Hernández et al., 2014 ); also, an existent interaction between both systems was evidenced in other brain functions ( Liu and Wang, 2003 ; Shahrokh et al., 2010 ). In this review