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Global Economy Journal Volume 8, Issue 2 2008 Article 4 Host Country Educational Attainment and Vertical Specialization Don P. Clark∗ ∗University of Tennessee, dclark3@utk.edu Host Country Educational Attainment and Vertical Specialization∗ Don P. Clark Abstract Integration of the global economy through trade has enabled firms to adopt new production strategies. Rather than producing in a single country, stages of production are performed in multi- ple countries to exploit inherent locational advantages. This practice gives rise to vertical special- ization

Educational Attainment and Family Background Arild Aakvik University of Bergen Kjell G. Salvanes Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Statistics Norway and IZAKjell Vaage University of Bergen Abstract. This paper analyses the effect of aspects of family background, such as family income and parental education, on the educational attainment of persons born from 1967 to 1972. Family income is measured at different periods of a child’s life to separate long-term versus short-term effects of family income on educational choices. We find that

• C H A P T E R E L E V E N Increasing Educational Attainment Eight years have passed since President Obama announced that America would regain its global lead in the educational level of its work- force by 2020. The goal was ambitious, requiring an increase in little over a decade of more than 40 percent in the number of Americans earn- ing college credentials. Yet the environment for such a change seemed promising. The financial incentives to get a degree were exceptionally strong, since the average earnings premium of college graduates over those with

-levels. Considering the current political turmoil, governments are non-existent in meeting the needs of their societies. The emergence of small-to medium-size social enterprises in the Middle East was crucial for the economy and specifically for the labor market ( Chalhoub 2011 ). Those small- and medium-size entrepreneurs design solutions to “make a change” in their community by creating more job opportunities, including wider groups into the labor market and reducing disparities among the societal classes. The aim of this study is to investigate how educational attainment of

REFERENCES Baizan, P., Aassve, A., and Billari, F.C. (2003). Cohabitation, marriage, and first birth: The interrelationship of family formation events in Spain. European Journal of Population , 19(2): 147–169. Beaujouan, E., Brzozowska, Z. and Zeman, K. (2016). The limited effect of increasing educational attainment on childlessness trends in twentieth-century Europe, women born 1916–65. Population Studies , 70:3, 275-291. Billari, F.C. (2004). Becoming an adult in Europe: A Macro(/Micro)-Demographic Perspective. Demographic Research SC, 3(2): 15-44. Billari

famine in countries working to expand educational access today. Many of these countries face the risks of famine or food shortage, and these risks are particularly severe in developing countries with the greatest exposure to the negative consequences of climate change (Lewin 2009 ; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2012 ; Seaman et al. 2014 ). Documenting how the famine affected educational attainment in China can help predict how current or future famines may affect educational attainment of people elsewhere. This study contributes to the existing

Volume 3, Issue 2 2008 Article 3 Multicultural Learning and Teaching African American Students and No Child Left Behind Legislation: Progression or Digression in Educational Attainment Chance W. Lewis, Texas A&M University Stephen Hancock, University of North Carolina at Charlotte Marlon James, Texas A & M University Patricia Larke, Texas A & M University Recommended Citation: Lewis, Chance W.; Hancock, Stephen; James, Marlon; and Larke, Patricia (2008) "African American Students and No Child Left Behind Legislation: Progression or Digression in Educational

Communities. Vol. II, Part 4: 383-404. Barro R.J., 1998. Human capital and growth in cross-country regressions. Working paper, Harvard University. Barro R.J., Lee J.W., 1996. International measures of schooling years and schooling quality. American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 86: 218-223. Barro R.J., Lee J.W., 2000. International data on educational attainment: Updates and implications. CID working paper 42, www.cidwp/042.htm (accessed 15 December 2011). Barro R.J., Lee J.W., 2010. A new data set of educational attainment in the world, 1950-2010. NBER working

Jahrbücher f. Nationalökonomie u. Statistik (Lucius & Lucius, Stuttgart 2005) Bd. (Vol.) 225/3 Are there Diverging Time Trends in the Educational Attainment of Nationals and Second Generation Immigrants? Unterscheiden sich die Trends in der Entwicklung des Bildungserfolges von Einheimischen und Zuwanderern der zweiten Generation? By Regina T. Riphahn, Basel* JEL 121, J24, J61 Second generation immigrants, educational attainment, assimilation. Zuwanderer zweiter Generation, Schulbildung, Bildungserfolg, Assimilation. Summary The educational attainment

Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attainment in Germany – The Last Five Decades By Guido Heineck and Regina T. Riphahn, Nuremberg* JEL I21, I28, J11 Education transmission, intergenerational mobility, schooling, human capital transmission. Received: 09.06.2008 Revision received: 14.08.2008 Accepted: 20.10.2008 Summary Over the last decades the German education system underwent numerous reforms in order to improve “equality of opportunity”, i.e. to guarantee all pupils independent of parental back- ground equal access to higher education. At the same