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(10-11), 1241-1251. [21] Jacques, J. C. Lavergne, and N. Devictor (2006). Sensitivity analysis in presence of model uncertainty and correlated inputs. Reliab. Eng. Syst. Safe. 91(10-11), 1126-1134. [22] Jones, B.L., M.L. Puri, and R. Zitikis (2006). Testing hypotheses about the equality of several risk measure values with applications in insurance. Insurance Math. Econom. 38(2), 253-270. [23] Jones, B.L. and R. Zitikis (2003). Empirical estimation of risk measures and related quantities. N. Am. Actuar. J. 7(4), 44-54. [24] Jones, B.L. and R. Zitikis (2007). Risk measures

Zusammenfassung

Ziel der Arbeit ist es, die Preiselastizitäten der Nachfrage für einzelne (u. a. ermäßigte) Tarife des ÖPNV einer mittelgroßen deutschen Stadt (hier Jena) mithilfe einer empirischen Schätzung zu ermitteln. Insbesondere wird es dadurch möglich, den städtischen Zuschussbedarf an den ÖPNV, der nach Einführung ermäßigter Sozialtarife für bestimmte Bevölkerungsgruppen entsteht, abzuschätzen. Die Schätzung mittels AR-Modells erfolgte auf Grundlage monatlicher Umsatzdaten einzelner Produkte der vergangenen zehn Jahre. Für den ÖPNV in Jena beträgt die Preiselastizität der Nachfrage nach Einzeltickets zum Normalpreis − 0,63 und ist somit, geografisch bedingt, in Absolutwerten etwas höher als in vergleichbaren Studien. Für ermäßigte Sozialtarife konnte ein höherer Elastizitätswert festgestellt werden. Somit kann für Personen, die von Sozialtransfers leben, festgestellt werden, dass die Nachfrage nach Leistungen des ÖPNV (Einzelfahrten) weniger vom Einkommenseffekt (geringere Preiselastizität bei einkommensschwacher Bevölkerungsgruppen) als vielmehr vom Effekt einer höheren Preiselastizität bei nicht berufsbedingten Freizeitfahrten bestimmt wird.

measurements at Mt. Fuji were compared to those obtained in in-flight measurements onboard a civilian aircraft flying near Mt. Fuji at the time between the two measurements at the mountain. According to the results ob- tained, we expect that the empirical estimation based on the measurements at Mt. Fuji will work effectively for dosimetry of cosmic radiation in troposphere. 1. Introduction Earth is constantly bombarded by high-energy cosmic-ray particles. These particles hit atmospheric nuclei and produce numerous secondary radiation in troposphere. Such cosmic- ray origin

international soybean markets. We first develop a bilateral oligopoly model to incorporate the interaction between non-GM and GM commodity in the analysis. Then, we use the model to conduct an empirical estimation on U.S.–Japan soybean trade. Bilateral oligopoly model Both U.S. exporters and Japanese importers may have market power to influence the soybean prices in the U.S.–Japan soybean trade. In addition, both non-GM and GM soybeans, the two vertically differentiated commodities, are exported from the United States to Japan. Thus, we develop a bilateral oligopoly model

consumers is very highly statistically related to predictable income growth – and thus standard ‘excess sensitivity’ tests would reject the hypothesis that consumers are behaving according to the model. Results are not much better for the second-order approximation to the Euler equation. The paper concludes that empirical estimation of consumption Euler equations should be abandoned, and discusses some alternative empirical strategies that are not subject to the problems of Euler equation estimation. KEYWORDS: Euler equation, uncertainty, consumption, excess sensitivity 1

+ Abstract A dilemma frequently faced by empirical researchers is whether they should keep observations without complete information in the analysis. Assuming missingness is not biased in any perceivable direction, most studies use a complete case analysis approach, whereby only observations with complete information are kept for empirical estimation. However, the literature on statistics (e.g., Little and Rubin 2002) suggests that potential biases may arise from such practice, especially if missing data are not missing completely at random (MCAR). When there are

demand functions can only provide for very restricted predictions of how additional public investment outlays affect the demand for labor and private capital. Empirical estimations of productivity effects of public infrastructure usually do not account for the way government activity is financed. Neglecting tax or debt financing, may, however, entail a misspecification of the econometric equations and a misinterpretation of the empirical results. Using a simple neoclassical growth model it is shown that the productivity of public capital investment does not per

section to fluidized section are estimated from experimental correlations that are selected through elaborate trial and error procedure. Though the simulation model involves simplifications and empirical estimation of a few parameters, model re- sults are found to exhibit reasonably good agreement with data collected through extensive experimental investigations, the maximum deviation being ±12.5 %. This confirms the acceptability of the software package developed. The devel- oped software could be, therefore, recommended for the design and installation of industrial

reflexive reinforce- ment of the process using a specific parameter. Data from the originator of the theory, Noelle-Neumann, give empirical estimations of this parameter, which is sufficient to justify some self-reinforcement, but not large enough to create a si- lent majority. Volker Müller-Benedict: Wie viel Meinungsdruck erzeugt die „Schweigespirale“? 115

maximizes the detection power in MSHT, Storey (2007) proposed a theoretical framework called the optimal discovery procedure (ODP). He also proposed an empirical estimation of the ODP thresholding function for a parametric MSHT that presupposes parametric forms of the null and alternative likelihood functions. Empirical Bayesian testing (Efron et al. 2001), which is based on a non-parametric treatment of arbitrary test statistics, has sometimes exhibited comparable power to the ODP. These two MSHT frameworks appear to be closely related but, because of differences in