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Jahrbücher f. Nationalökonomie u. Statistik (Lucius & Lucius, Stuttgart 2002) Bd. (Vol.) 222/4 Energy Costs, Endogenous Innovation, and Long-run Growth Energiekosten, endogener technischer Fortschritt und Wirtschaftswachstum By Heinz Welsch*, Oldenburg, and Klaus Eisenack*, Potsdam JEL 0 3 , 0 4 , Q4 Endogenous technological change, economic growth, energy costs, natural resources. Endogener technischer Fortschritt, Wirtschaftswachstum, Energiekosten, natürliche Ressourcen. Summary Based on the observation that energy costs have been decreasing over

if the government can optimally subsidize R&D today, there is no time inconsistency problem. Thus, lack of commitment is not an argument for higher current R&D subsidies than the first-best subsidy. If the offered R&D subsidy is lower than the optimal subsidy, the current (sub-game perfect) carbon tax rate exceeds the first-best carbon tax rate. KEYWORDS: time consistency, carbon tax, climate policy, R&D, endogenous technological change ∗We are grateful to the Norwegian Research Council and the Renergi program for financial sup- port. Comments from Larry Karp

numerical simulation shows that merging both endogenous technological change and institutional aspects in the form of imperfect and heterogeneous IPR protection can contribute to explaining the different innovation and wage inequality performances of the U.S. and the EU regions. KEYWORDS: imperfect patent protection, R&D, growth, inequality ∗In working on this paper I have benefited significantly of suggestions and comments from the editor of the journal and from two anonymous referees. Remaining errors are all mine. 1 Introduction The role of education and of R&D for

dem Jahre 1990: „Endogenous Technological Change" (Punkt III.). Dies geschieht nicht mit dem Anspruch, damit sämtliche endoge- nen Wachstumstheorien erschöpfend zu behandeln. Gleichwohl lassen sich einige grundlegende Probleme der endogenen Wachstumstheorien verdeutlichen. Es soll ge- zeigt werden, daß trotz des Fortschritts dieses Erklärungsmodells gegenüber der traditi- onalen neoklassischen Wachstumstheorie von einer „Endogenisierung" im strengen Sinne nicht die Rede sein kann, da wesentliche Aspekte des Marktgeschehens als trei- bende Kraft des



In this paper, we introduce endogenous technological change through R&D expenditure on labor-augmenting innovation in the cyclical growth model by Goodwin (Goodwin, R. 1967. “A Growth Cycle.” In Socialism, Capitalism, and Economic Growth, edited by Carl Feinstein, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.). Innovation is a costly, forward-looking process financed out of profits, and pursued by owners of capital stock (capitalists) in order to foster labor productivity and save on labor requirements. Our main findings are: (i) Goodwin-type distributive cycles arise even with dynamic optimization, but (ii) endogenous technical change has a dampening effect on economic fluctuations; (iii) steady state per capita growth, income distribution and employment rate are endogenous, and depend on the capitalists’ discount rate, the institutional variables regulating the labor market, and policy variables such as subsidies to R&D activity. Implementing the model numerically to match long run data for the US, we show that: (iv) an increase in the capitalists’ discount rate lowers per-capita growth, the employment rate and the labor share; (v) an increase in workers’ bargaining strength moderately raises the labor share and moderately decreases per-capita growth, while sharply reducing employment: quarterly US fluctuations (1948–2006) in employment and the labor share seem to support this result; (vi) a balanced budget increase in the R&D subsidy also fosters per-capita growth at the expenses of the labor share, even though the corresponding variations might be small.

", No 23. Romer P. (1990), Endogenous technological change , "Journal of Political Economy", vol. 98, no. 5, part II. Stanisz A. (2007), Przystępny kurs statystki , Tom 2, Statsoft. Kraków. Sternberg R. (2000), Innovation Networks and Regional Development - Evidence from the European Regional Innovation Survey (ERIS) , "European Planning Studies", Vol. 8, No 4. Welfe A. (1998), Ekonometria , PWE, Warszawa.

Exogeneity of Environmental Scarcity 105 6A.1 Endogenous Technological Change and Resource Scarcity: Conventional View 131 6A.2 Endogenous Technological Change and Resource Scarcity: Alternative View 131 7.1 The Core Model of the Causal Links between Environmental Scarcity and Violence 134 7.2 Environmental Scarcity and Insurgency in the Philippines 154 7A.1 Matrix of Case Distribution on Values of the Independent and Dependent Variables 173 This page intentionally left blank

Social Care Services for Older People Revista Românească pentru Educaţie Multidimensională VII(2) (2015) 97-109 Paul M. Romer , (1990) Endogenous Technological Change, Journal of Political Economy 98, no. 5, Part 2: S71-S102. Quintini, G. (2011), Over-Qualified or Under-Skilled: A Review of Existing Literature, OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 121, OECD Publishing, Paris. Sattinger, M. (1980), Capital and the Distribution of Labor Earnings, Amsterdam, North-Holland Pub. Co. Sicherman, N., & Galor, O. (1990). A theory of career mobility

, D. (2013). Regionalne nejednakosti i privredni rast: primer Srbije. Doktorska disertacija, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Beograd: Ekonomski fakultet. Puljiz, J. (2009). Čimbenici regionalnog razvoja i regionalnih nejednakosti u Republici Hrvatskoj. Doktorska disertacija, Sveučilište u Splitu, Split: Ekonomski fakultet . Roberts, M. & Setterfield, M. (2010). Endogenous regional growth: a critical survey. In Setterfield, M. (ed) Handbook of alternative theories of economic growth , 431-50. Romer, P. (1990). Endogenous technological change. Journal of Political Economy

losers among a refugee-hosting population. CORE Discussion paper . May. ROMER P. M. (1990). Endogenous technological change. Journal of political economy 98(5): 71-102. DOI: 10.1086/261725 SHELLITO, K. (2016). The Economic Effect of Refugee Crises on Host Countries and Implications for the Lebanese Case. Joseph Wharton Research Scholars. Available at UNHCR, (2010). Convention and protocol relating to the status of refugees .