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Energy Use Patterns in German Industry: Evidence from Plant-level Data By Sebastian Petrick and Katrin Rehdanz, Kiel, and Ulrich J. Wagner, Madrid* JEL Q40; Q41; Q43 Energy use; energy efficiency; manufacturing; microdata; CO2 emissions. Summary This paper analyzes energy use and CO2 emissions of more than 78 000 German industrial plants between 1995 and 2006. It is the first study to exploit exceptionally rich energy data that were recently matched to official micro datasets. We document that both energy use and intensity are highly dispersed across plants. When

References [1] Abimbola O., Amori A., Omotosho O., Igbode I., Omoyeni D., Ajayi-Banji A. Investigation of Energy use Pattern and Emission Discharge in Nigeria: Case study of south west zone. International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation 2015:5(1):56-65 [2] Yuan B., Ren S., Chen X. The effects of urbanization, consumption ratio and consumption structure on residential indirect CO2 emissions in China. A regional comparative analysis 2015:140:94-106. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.11.047 [3] Lopes R. L., Guilhoto J. J. M., Marcos R. P. The energy

) Electricity Generates: electricity Biomass C 2.2 a c e b d f C 2.1 C 2.1 Microscopic image of microalgae C 2.2 Principles of active solar energy use in the building envelope a Solar air heating b Solar electricity generation c Solar water heating d Solar electricity generation and water heating e Radiation cooling at night f Solar water heating and biomass production C 2.3 Principle of the photothermic effect C 2.4 Functioning of a crystalline solar cell Active solar energy use Thomas Stark Apart from a building envelope’s basic func- tions such as providing

169 1 Passive solar energy use 170 Solar energy – location and structural orientation 171 Solar and thermal radiation – visible light 172 Insulating glazing – technical factors involving solar radiation 177 Moveable elements in and around building openings 180 Size and layout of openings 182 Use of daylight 186 2 Active solar energy use 190 Principles of active solar energy conversion 191 Solar structural element technologies and their design potential 191 Efficiency and profitability 194 Active solar technology combined with opening

). Wohlstand ohne Wachstum. Propylen Berlin. Mulder, P. (2005). The Economics of Technology of Diffusion and Energy. EE UK, USA. Ney, R., Michna, J., Ekmanis, Y. & Zeltins, N. (2008). Energy use and related risk management problems in CEE countries. Latvian Journal of Physics and Technical Sciences , 1,. 41-51. Ney, R., Michna, J., Ekmanis, Y. & Zeltins, N. (2008). Reputation risk management in the context of energy policy in CEE countries. Latvian Journal of Physics and Technical Sciences , 5, 48-59. Pinnells, J. & Pinnells, E. (2007). Risikomanagement in Projekten

.1007/978-1-4020-6293-3_2 [23] Friedl B., Getzne, M. Determinants of CO 2 emissions in a small open economy. Ecological economics 2003:45(1):133–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(03)00008-9 [24] Richmond A. K., Kaufmann R. K. Is there a turning point in the relationship between income and energy use and/or carbon emissions? Ecological economics 2006:56(2):176–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.01.011 [25] Berndt E. R., Wood D. O. Technology, prices, and the derived demand for energy. The review of Economics and Statistics 1975:57(3) 259–268. https://doi.org/10

Chapter 3 Energy Use and Carbon Budgets In this chapter I consider carbon and energy balances within cities and between cities and nature, and the question of the long-term sustainability of these quantities. Americans use a lot of energy, dominated a century ago by coal, then overtaken by petroleum and natural gas, and now, once again, dominated by coal. Even longer ago, trees supplied most of our energy, and recent hopes have pinned the future on biomass fuels. Certainly, modern-carbon energy has advantages over fossil-carbon energy, but our total energy use

BURMA'S ENERGY USE Perils and Promises Introduction Tin Maung Maung Than With the passing of the era of energy-price stability in the wake of the OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) price hike of 1973, many nations have been forced to contend with the escalating price of oil as well as supply uncertainty in their quest for economic growth. However, Burma, due to its favourable ecology, austere consumption patterns concomitant with self-imposed economic isolation and low level of industrialization has managed, throughout the decade of the

4 Ecology of Rumen Microorganisms: Energy Use J. B. Russell The term Oekologie was coined in 1866 by Ernest Haeckel, who used the word to relate differences in animal morphology to Charles Darwin's newly de- scribed theory of evolution and natural selection (Mcintosh 1980). The word ecology comes from the Greek words oikos, meaning "home," and logos, which is taken to mean "science" (Colinvaux 1973). More modem definitions range from the study of ''interrelationships between living organisms and their environment" (Buchsbaum and Buchsbaum 1957) to "man

Energy Use and Related Risk Management Problems in CEE Countries

Nowadays, the efficiency of energy use in the Central and East-European (CEE) countries is insufficient, being much lower than in the "Old Europe". The problem becomes increasingly pressing due to non-stop increasing prices of energy carriers (especially of crude oil). The authors trace the development of research activities in this sphere, classifying the revealed changes in parameters of energy consumption processes in particular time intervals into deterministic, probabilistic, and fuzzy. The paper presents a thorough analysis of decision-making in the energy management at its different levels - normative, strategic, and operative. Particular attention is given to the management under uncertainty conditions - i.e. to the risk management. The most wanted research directions in this area proposed by the energy and environment policy (EEP) Center specially created for CEE countries concern management under risk connected with innovations, international activities, loss of reputation, etc. The authors consider in detail the risk management with insufficient knowledge (non-knowledge) and under chaos. Much consideration is given to the scenario management and the game theory principles as related to the sphere of energy use.