western and northern parts of the colony.
The religious orders also played an important role in the evangelizationofPeru. The Franciscans, who had taken the lead in the conversion efforts in
Mexico, were fewer in number and more limited in their impact in Peru. The
Dominicans organized the first missionary expedition to Peru, sending six
friars to accompany the Pizarro expedition, one of whom was Fr. Vicente de
Valverde. Only two or three of these actually reached Peru. In 1534 Fr. Juan
de Olias, one of those missionaries, established
petitioner would apply for a loan of all or part of the sum men-
encomiendas in several parts of Peru, though the former lost theirs in 1548. For A
detailed account of the evangelisationofPeru, see Fernando d e A r m a s M e -
d i n a , Cristianizaci6n del Peru (1532-1600), Seville 1953; Antonine T i b e s a r ,
Franciscan Beginnings in Colonial Peru, Washington 1953; Rubin V a r g a s
U g a r t e , Historia de la Iglesia en el Peru, 5 vols., Burgos 1959-1962.
A r m a s M e d i n a , Propiedades, p. 694-695.
8) Mario G < 5 n g o r a , Incumplimiento de una ley en
councils and synods reiterated this point when ordering priests to learn local
languages. In Peru, the languages in question were Quechua and Aymara, those
most spoken by the Andean people. As Robert Ricard wrote about the Nahuatl
language in New Spain, these languages were used as ‘auxiliary’ languages in
the evangelizationofPeru. The first Quechua lessons were given in 1551 in the
cathedral of Lima. Among the Dominicans who were in charge of this instruc-
tion, the most important was Domingo de Santo Tomás, the author of the first
Quechua grammar. A chair of
campaign led by the Dominicans for the evangelizationofPeru,
induced a greater wariness in the approach to conversion, together with a reduced
estimate of the capability of the Indians to assimilate the faith. The Indians no
doubt responded in kind.
The result was the gradual emergence of a new, and depressing, consensus
about the nature of the Indian, far removed from the generous enthusiasm of Las
Casas and his friends. The College of Santa Cruz came to be regarded as a fail-
ure, and strong opposition closed the entry of Indians to the priesthood.77 With