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The Martyrdom of Diego Ortiz (1571) by Antonio de la Calancha [1638]

western and northern parts of the colony. Evangelization of Peru The religious orders also played an important role in the evangelization of Peru. The Franciscans, who had taken the lead in the conversion efforts in Mexico, were fewer in number and more limited in their impact in Peru. The Dominicans organized the first missionary expedition to Peru, sending six friars to accompany the Pizarro expedition, one of whom was Fr. Vicente de Valverde. Only two or three of these actually reached Peru. In 1534 Fr. Juan de Olias, one of those missionaries, established

petitioner would apply for a loan of all or part of the sum men- encomiendas in several parts of Peru, though the former lost theirs in 1548. For A detailed account of the evangelisation of Peru, see Fernando d e A r m a s M e - d i n a , Cristianizaci6n del Peru (1532-1600), Seville 1953; Antonine T i b e s a r , Franciscan Beginnings in Colonial Peru, Washington 1953; Rubin V a r g a s U g a r t e , Historia de la Iglesia en el Peru, 5 vols., Burgos 1959-1962. A r m a s M e d i n a , Propiedades, p. 694-695. 8) Mario G < 5 n g o r a , Incumplimiento de una ley en

. Peruvian councils and synods reiterated this point when ordering priests to learn local languages. In Peru, the languages in question were Quechua and Aymara, those most spoken by the Andean people. As Robert Ricard wrote about the Nahuatl language in New Spain, these languages were used as ‘auxiliary’ languages in the evangelization of Peru. The first Quechua lessons were given in 1551 in the cathedral of Lima. Among the Dominicans who were in charge of this instruc- tion, the most important was Domingo de Santo Tomás, the author of the first Quechua grammar. A chair of

campaign led by the Dominicans for the evangelization of Peru, induced a greater wariness in the approach to conversion, together with a reduced estimate of the capability of the Indians to assimilate the faith. The Indians no doubt responded in kind. The result was the gradual emergence of a new, and depressing, consensus about the nature of the Indian, far removed from the generous enthusiasm of Las Casas and his friends. The College of Santa Cruz came to be regarded as a fail- ure, and strong opposition closed the entry of Indians to the priesthood.77 With the Indians