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communication ( Tsfati et al. 2010 ; Mujica and Bachmann 2013 ). The present study is interested in the values of nonverbal resources, specifically eyebrow flashes as one of the communicative resources adopted by newsreaders in television news presentation. The discourse of broadcast news is shifting toward a more “conversational” approach ( Montgomery 2007 ; Fairclough 1994 ). Thus, rather than assuming a traditional poker-face delivery of news on television, newsreaders as televised personae are now becoming more “informal” and “dialogic.” The style of television news


? 239 Lyudmyla Zaporozhtseva Darth Vader in Ukraine: On the boundary between reality and mythology 261 Zhengrui Han and Hongqiang Zhu Stance markers in television news presentation: Expressivity of eyebrow flashes in the delivery of news 279 Review article/Compte rendu Colas-Blaise Marion La sémiotique des formes de vie, un nouveau tournant ? 301 2018 | Issue 221 Semiotica

duration was measured are given in Tables 1-3. In this analysis, rate was derived by dividing the number of signs in an utterance into the total time spent signing. That is to A deaf-mute sign language from the Enga Province: Part I 13 Table 4. Lengths of face actions glossed as signs for Lanyela and Imanoli Context of occurrence Lanyela LI L7a L7a L7a Ll l L13 L13a L88 Imanoli 116 134 140 156 168 187 Type Eyebrow flash and mouth action Eyebrow flash and mouth action Eyebrow flash and mouth action Lip point Eyebrow flash and head turn Eyebrow flash and mouth action

to cement a social relationship in a greeting. An example from nonverbal communication is the eyebrow flash, when both eyebrows are momentarily raised. As a component of facial expression, the eyebrow flash is interpreted as signifying surprise (Ekman and Friesen 1975), but this is 'swallowed up' in its use as a widely recognized greeting (Eibl-Eibesfeldt 1974). Barthes, for whom the process of swallowing up meaning is fundamental, gives another but rather different kind of example. He describes a picture on a magazine of a black soldier in French uniform, saluting

make a wish with the little fingers of the right hand interlocked, and then quickly unlocked (1975: 84). Greeting gestures Three of the six greeting gestures collected are very similar to counterparts commonly used in the United States. The fifth (G 5) is not found here, Gestures in Nanjing, PRC 249 or if found, is used differently, and is frequently overlooked or misunder- stood by American visitors to China until they learn the gesture. It is usually called an 'eyebrow flash'. Two Americans who had spent several months in Nanjing described the experience of

a wide range of perspectives and levels of complexity. He deals with simple acts such as the eyebrow flash, the smile, or types of manual gesture, but he also deals with much less simple matters such as religious displays, aesthetic behavior, overexposed signals of sporting be- havior, which cannot possibly be described in terms of simple bodily actions. These difficulties notwithstanding, the descriptive approach to human behavior that Morris is urging upon us with this book is one that we could do with a great deal more of. Detailed description of types of human

communicate assertion or even aggression (Morris et al. 1979). For instance, Bauml and Bauml (1975) associated tossing and raising with antipathy, carelessness, challenge, contempt, arrogance, etc. However, the basic negativity may be attenuated, or even inversed, by accompaniment of communications on a meta level, such as mock or playfulness (Bateson 1973: 150-166). For instance, a short toss may communicate a spirited jest, as in easing tension, when accompanied by a smile or other friendly gestures (Tway 1978). A similar head toss accompanies the eyebrows flash, a

-Eibesfeldt (1970), in an ethological film study of expressive behaviors in a variety of cultures, found the brow-raise ("eyebrow flash") to represent a possibly universal signal in greetings and courtship displays. Finally, subjects in the videotape study were observed to use rotated-upward palm gestures while delivering explanatory, tentative, and uncertain verbal statements. Explanatory sentences containing words like "mean" (e.g., "What I mean is. . . .") or "because" were accompanied by palm-rotation gestures. And sentences incorporating tentative words and phrases like "if

or sitting (straight/slouched, knees together/knees apart) (b) Posture 2 Orientation (a) Body orientation (facing directly towards or away from interlocutor) (b) Gaze (on line of sight; away from line of sight) 3 Facial and head gestures (a) Head bows (b) Head nods (c) Smiling (d) Eyebrow movements - eyebrows raised/lowered; eyebrow furrows; eyebrow flashes 4 Manual gestures (a) Points (b) Waves (c) Other hand gestures 5 Self-touching Touching the face, mouth, or other body part Table 1: Annotated categories (continued) 6 Haptics Physical touching of interlocutor

), since for him the context is the act. In a somewhat different approach, Hinde (1974) expressed the dilemma as follows: 'not all cross-cultural or cross-specific similarities involve the form of a movement pattern. Sometimes they concern general muscle tonus'. Hinde was here specifically distinguishing between the 224 /. Char tens and P. A. Scott eyebrow-flash, for him a movement pattern, and the dynamic postures of dominant versus subordinate and dejected rhesus monkeys, for him a phenomenon of 'general muscle tonus' as distinct from movement. While from the