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116 5 Is the Transgene a Grave? On the Place of Transgenic Papaya in Food Democracy in Hawai‘i Neal K. Adolph Akatsuka On May 25, 2010, Jerry Punzal found 397 of the 500 transgenic 1 pa- paya trees he grew on his farm in Mililani on the island of O‘ahu chopped down. He believed the act was “strictly vandalism” (Jinbo 2011). On the night of June 29, 2010, five weeks later, 13,000 papaya trees were decapitated at the papaya farm leased by Laureto Julian in the Puna district on the Big Island2— the largest incident of agricultural vandalism recorded in the

1 Einleitung In den letzten zwei bis drei Jahrzehnten sind weltweit eine Reihe von sozialen Bewegungen entstanden, die sich für alternative, gerechte und ökologisch produzierte Nahrungsmittel einsetzen. Unabhängig davon, ob es sich um Initiativen für Ernährungsgerechtigkeit, Food Democracy oder um die radikalere Forderung nach Ernährungssouveränität handelt (vgl. Andrée et al. 2014a ; Trauger 2015) , eint diese durchaus heterogenen Food Movements, dass sie gegen die Dominanz eines deregulierten und in globale Strukturen eingebetteten Systems der Produktion und

Visions of Food Democracy

Integrative Food Politics International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food 20 3 Available at: . Hassanein, N., 2013. Practicing food democracy: a pragmatic politics of transformation, Journal of Rural Studies 19. Hassanein N. 2013 Practicing food democracy: a pragmatic politics of transformation Journal of Rural Studies 19 Jęczmyk, A. 2015. Traditional and regional food products as part of the development of agritourism farms. In: Innovation of Rural Tourism and New Opportunities of Employment on Rural Areas


Food and Power in Hawai‘i Series Editors: Christine R. Yano and Robert Ji- Song Ku Food and Power in Hawai‘i VISIONS OF FOOD DEMOCRACY Edited by Aya Hirata Kimura and Krisnawati Suryanata University of Hawai‘i Press Honolulu © 2016 University of Hawai‘i Press All rights reserved Printed in the United States of Amer i ca 21 20 19 18 17 16 6 5 4 3 2 1 Library of Congress Cataloging- in- Publication Data Names: Kimura, Aya Hirata, editor. | Suryanata, Krisnawati, editor. Title: Food and power in Hawai‘i : visions of food democracy / edited by Aya Hirata


v Acknowl edgments vii Introduction 1 Aya Hirata Kimura and Krisnawati Suryanata 1 Tangled Roots: The Paradox of Impor tant Agricultural Lands in Hawai‘i 17 Krisnawati Suryanata and Kem Lowry 2 Food Security in Hawai‘i 36 George Kent 3 Kaulana O‘ahu me he ‘Āina Momona 54 Lilikalā K. Kame‘eleihiwa Hi‘ilei Kawelo 4 Farmers’ Markets in Hawai‘i: A Local/Global Nexus 85 Monique Mironesco 5 Is the Transgene a Grave? On the Place of Transgenic Papaya in Food Democracy in Hawai‘i 116 Neal K. Adolph Akatsuka Contents vi Contents 6 Seeds of Contestation: The

case of Tuscany. In: Land Use Policy, Vol. 38, pp. 276-281. DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2013.11.009 Renting, H., Schermer, M. and Rossi, A., 2012: Building food democracy: Exploring civic food networks and newly emerging forms of food citizenship. In: International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, Vol. 19(3), pp. 289-307. Salvati, L., Munafo, M., Gargiulo Morelli, V. and Sabbi, A., 2012: Low-density settlements and land use changes in a Mediterranean urban region. In: Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 105(1-2), pp. 43-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011

contribute to the local food supply or provide alterna- tive market arrangements, but because they engage and empower the citi- zens to participate in food democracy. In linking the debate on food explic itly to the issue of power and democracy, we seek to reframe the dis- course that has focused on increasing the amount of locally grown food or protecting local farms into the broader objectives of social justice, ecologi- cal sustainability, and economic viability. We situate the urge to increase local food production in the broader concern that arises from the


put it, “disrupting corporate power through food democracy.” It is a guidebook for empowering all of us to resist corporate power and to collectively make our own decisions about how to create a food system that best prevents hunger, improves health, and reverses climate change. The operative phrase here is “food democracy.” This book embeds democ- racy in its very structure. Each part of the book contains two chapters. The first chapter focuses on how Wall Street’s requirement that corporations stress profit over the public good has harmed workers, undermined

tal ist economy, and remain prevalent worldwide as they do in Hawai‘i. In our endeavor to envision the paths towards food democracy, the volume has examined these initiatives to broaden our conception of food issues beyond a matter of food produc- tion, but as a matter of politics that is fundamentally about social, cul- tural, and economic powers. While this book is about a specific place, we believe that the relevance of the book extends beyond Hawai‘i, and suggest four impor tant issues that emerged from the volume as a whole that bear importance to