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References Anonymous, 2008. World Bank, World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development, World Bank Press, Washington DC., USA: Anonymous, 2017. Global Food Security Index. The Economist Intelligence Unit. Balmford, A., Green, R. E., Scharlemann, J. P. W. 2005. Global Change Biology 11 (10): 1594-1605. Charles, H., Godfray, J., Beddington, J. R., Crute, I. R., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Muir, J. F., Pretty, J., Robinson, S., Thomas, S. M., Toulmin, C. 2010. Food Securit: The Challenge of Feeding 9 Billion People. Science 327: 812-818. Chitea, L., Dona

1 Introduction The issue of food security has received much attention and has been analyzed from many perspectives (Schmitz, Kennedy, and Schmitz 2015 ; 2016 ; 2017 ; Kennedy 2018 ). It was defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as the situation where “all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” ( Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 1996 ). They

1 The Public Stockholding Debate at the WTO The Public Stockholding for Food Security Purposes (PSH) debate at the WTO is not new. The Agreement on Agriculture WTO Agreement on Agriculture ( https://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/14-ag_01_e.htm ). adopted at the end of the Uruguay Round contains an explicit reference to public stockholding and establishes relevant disciplines in Annex 2 to the Agreement on Agriculture ( World Trade Organization (WTO) 1994 ). While as early as 2002, just a few years after the end of the implementation period of the Uruguay

1 Introduction Food security as defined by FAO (1996:4 ; 2008a:9) “exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. Food security can be classified under four components, namely; food accessibility, availability, utilisation and stability. In recent decades, food security has been investigated with the availability and accessibility components emphasised as the core of food security ( Bashir and Schilizzi, 2013

References 1. Curtis, G. E. (1991). Georgia: A Country Study: Agriculture, Washington GPO for the Library of Congress 2. Balan, I. M., Constantinescu, S. C., Csosz, I., Durau, C. C., Ciolac, R. M. & Sicoe, O. M. (2016). Genetics-source for improving the quality of beef in Romania, Lucrări Ştiinţifice Management Agricol, 18 (2), 23-26. 3. National Statistics Office of Georgia GEOSTAT - Agriculture, Environment and Food Security, from www.geostat.ge 4. FAO, (2012). Assessment of the Agriculture and Rural Development Sectors in the Eastern Partnership countries

References 1. Action Contre La Faim International (ACF). (2010). Food Security and Livelihood Assessments: A Practical Guide for Field Workers Technical Department of Food Security and Livelihoods. pp. 18-24. ACF International, Retrieved April 10, 2018 from http://www.actionagainsthunger.org/sites/default/files/.../acf-fsl-manual-final-10-lr.pdf . 2. Asmah, E. (2011). Rural Livelihood Diversification and Agricultural Household Welfare in Ghana.” Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. 3(7), pp. 325-334. 3. Barrett, C. B., Reardon, T., & Webb, P

higher yields, and food insecurity is a result of poor distribution and limited income by the consumers (Coulibaly et al. 2017 ). Sierra Leone, like most other SSA countries, has difficulties in its agricultural sector and in achieving its food security needs. Studies estimate that the country has over 70% of the populations below the national poverty line, 52% living on less than US$1 per day, and 26% are not able to afford the minimum daily calorific requirements (Conteh et al. 2012 ). Also, there is evidence of limited access to capital, inadequate investment in

://www.bioenergyconsult.com/biomass-energy-rural-development/ [7] Osseweijer P., et al. Bioenergy and food security. Bioenergy&Sustainability: Bridging the Gaps. Paris: SCOPE, 2015:91–136. [8] Abila N. Biofuels adoption in Nigeria: A preliminary review of feedstock and fuel production potentials. An International Journal 2010:21(6):785–795. doi:10.1108/14777831011077646 [9] Oshewolo S. Designed to fail: Nigeria's quest for bioenergy. Afro Asian Journal of Social Sciences 2012:3(3.3):1–15. [10] Reiter B. Theory and Methodology of Exploratory Social Science Research. International Journal of Science and Research

1 Introduction The role of agriculture in producing food and generating income is vital in agrarian economies such as those of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To improve income and ensure food security, it is necessary to consider the entire food value chain (FAO 2011 ). While there has been much effort (and resources) devoted toward enhancing food production and productivity, focusing solely on enhancing productivity may not be sufficient. Equally important is minimizing losses and waste along the entire food value chain. The prospect of enhancing global food

References/Literatura 1. Charles, H.J., Beddington, J.R., Crute, I.R., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Toulmin, C. (2010). Food Security: The Cha llenge of Fe- eding 9 Billion People. Science, 327 (5967), 812-818. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1185383 2. Dąbrowska, A., Ozimek, I. (2014). Bezpieczeństwo żywnościowe konsumentów w Polsce – wybrane aspekty [Food Security of Consumers in Poland – A Select Aspects]. Handel Wewnętrzny, 4 (351), 55-69. [in Polish]. 3. Dz.U. z 2006 r. Nr 171, poz. 1225, Ustawa z dnia 25 sierpnia 2006 r. o bezpieczeństwie żywności i