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-type A receptor defi cits cause hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity and antidepressant drug sensitivity reminiscent of melancholic forms of depression. Biol Psychiatry 2010, 68:512-520. 22. Xing B, Zhao Y, Zhang H, Dang Y, Chen T, Huang J, Luo Q: Microinjection of valproic acid into the ventrolateral orbital cortex exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the rat forced swim test. Brain Res Bull 2011, 85:153-157. 23. Crestani F, Keist R, Fritschy JM, Benke D, Vogt K, Prut L, Blüthmann H, Möhler H, Rudolph U: Trace fear conditioning involves hippocampal

://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK5227/ . 23. File SE. The validation of animal tests of anxiety-pharmacological implications. Pol J pharmacol Pharm. 1984; 36: p. 505-12. 24. Rex A, Voigt J, Gustedt C et al. Anxiolytic-like profile in Wistar, but not Sprague–Dawley rats in the social interaction test. Psychopharmacol. 2004; 177:23-34. 25. Slattery DA, Cryan J. Using the rat forced swim test to assess antidepressant-like activity in rodents. Nature Protocol. 2012; 7(6):1009-14. 26. Yankelevitch-Yahav R, Franko M, Huly A et al. The Forced Swim Test as a Model of Depressive-like Behavior. J Vis Exp

and chronic forced-swim test (FST). Acute FST was conducted in two ses- sions after administration of three doses within 24 h. Chronic FST was conducted over 14 days. Drugs were administered each day for 14 days. Effect on locomotor activity was tested in OFT. Results: ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test was used. Dose- fi nding study of ropinirole showed that out of three doses, 20 mg/kg produced maximum reduction in immobility in acute FST (137 ± 8 s). Coadministration of ropinirole with fl uoxetine in acute FST further reduced immobility (107 ± 8 s

(12.50, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), or Group V: imipramine (20 mg/kg, p.o.), Group VI: fluoxetine (30 mg/kg, p.o.) standard reference drugs) were administered 1 h before the animals were subjected to FST and TST. Imipramine was chosen because it acts through noradrenergic and serotonergic pathways, i. e. noradrenaline-serotonin reuptake inhibitor [ 21 ], while fluoxetine acts selectively on the serotonergic pathway (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) [ 22 ]. Antidepressant evaluation Forced swim test The test was conducted using the method of Porsolt et al

connected in circuit to the counter. As the beam of light falling on photocell is cut off by a mouse, a count is recorded as a measure of locomotor activity [ 13 ]. Forced swim test: It is a standardized test for depressive-like behavior in which depression is inferred from an increased duration of immobility. Mice were individually forced to swim inside a vertical Plexiglas cylinder (height: 40 cm; breadth: 18 cm; containing water 15 cm maintained at 25 °C). The water was changed between testing sessions. Mice were placed into the water for 6 min, and the duration of

sampled every second and averaged over 30 min. In the Porsolt forced swim test, mice were placed individually into a glass cylinder (height 28 cm, diameter 20 cm) containing water (height 14 cm, 24–25 °C). Immobility time was recorded during the last 4 min of the 6 min testing period. For the social preference test, mice were first habituated to a transparent open-field box (44 cm×44 cm) in three consecutive days for 5 min. On the testing day, an empty cage and a cage containing an unfamiliar mouse of the same gender and age were placed in the open field box. The test

Abstract

Background: Chronic stress is one of the main factors which lead to depression – a psychiatric disorder affecting millions of people and predicted to be the second ranked cause of premature death in 2020. Depression is often associated with cognitive disturbances and memory deficit. Plant based therapy could be effective in the treatment of mild to moderate depression due to its low level of adverse reaction, its good tolerability and compliance.

Materials and methods: 72 male Wistar rats, divided in 9 groups were given orally for 8 weeks two combinations of dry plant extracts – Antistress I and Antistress II and five individual dry extracts obtained from Serratula coronata, Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis, Crataegus monogyna and Melissa officinalis. The animals were exposed to a chronic unpredictable mild stress for 8 weeks. The depression-like symptoms were evaluated with Forced swim test while the assessment of the memory deficit was performed with Novel object recognition test.

Results: Antistress II demonstrates antidepressant effect while Antistress I doesn’t improve the depressive-like symptoms. The individual extracts of Hypericum perforatum and Valeriana officinalis also possess antidepressant properties. Antistress II improves the cognition as well as the individual extracts of Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis and especially Serratula coronata. Dry extract from Serratula tend to have the best effect regarding the recognition memory. The effect of Antistress I on memory deficit is negligible.

Conclusions: Antistress II possesses antidepressant effect and improves the recognition memory while Antistress I doesn’t demonstrate any of the above-described effects.

mucilage; 10 mL/kg, p.o). Sixty minutes after treatment with the respective drugs, the mice were suspended by their tails with an adhesive tape on an aluminium rod (1 cm diameter) fixed 40 cm above the bench, and video-recorded for 6 min with a camera. The duration of immobility over the last 4 min of the test session was blindly scored by a trained observer using the JWatcher ® software (University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA, and Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. http://www.jwatcher.ucla.edu/ ). Forced swim test Immediately after the tail suspension

-amphetamine and food deprivation. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 78 : 368–372. Slattery DA, Cryan JF (2012). Using the rat forced swim test to assess antidepressant-like activity in rodents. Nat. Protoc. 7 : 1009–1014. Stedenfeld KA, Clinton SM, Kerman IA, Akil H, Watson SJ, Sved AF (2011). Novelty-seeking behavior predicts vulnerability in a rodent model of depression. Physiol. Behav. 103 : 210–216. Surget A, Saxe M, Leman S, Ibarguen-Vargas Y, Chalon S, Griebel G, Hen R, Belzung C (2008). Drug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neuro-genesis in a model of depression and of

captured via a video camera and immobility time was measured. In this test, the ‘immobile period’ was defined as the interval when the animals stopped struggling for ≥ 1 s. Data acquisition and analysis were performed using ANY-MAZE software. 2.10 Porsolt Forced Swim Test The Porsolt forced swim test (PFST) was also used to examine depressive-like behavior. The apparatus consisted of four Plexiglas cylinders (20-cm height × 10-cm diameter). The cylinders were filled with water (23 °C) to a depth of 7.5 cm, based on previous studies [ 16 ], [ 17 ]. The mice were placed in