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: NorthHolland. Johnson, Keith. 1997. Speech perception without speaker normalization: An exemplar model. In Johnson Keith and John Mullennix (eds.), Talker Variability in Speech Processing , 145-165. San Diego: Academic Press. Pierrehumbert, Janet B. 2001. Exemplar dynamics: Word frequency, lenition, and contrast. In Joan Bybee and Paul Hopper (eds.), Frequency effects and the emergence of lexical structure , 137-157. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Schuchardt, Hugo. 1885. Über die Lautgesetze. Gegen die Junggrammatiker . Berlin: Oppenheim. Shockey, Linda

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Defining the Limits of Frequency as an Explanatory Concept

Tom Ruette (KU Leuven), Katharina Ehret (University of Freiburg), and Benedikt Szmrecsanyi (KU Leuven) Frequency effects in lexical sociolectometry are insubstantial Abstract: This contribution investigates frequency effects in lexical sociolectom­ etry, and explores by way of a case study, variation in written English as sampled in the well­known Brown family of corpora. Lexical sociolectometry is a productive research paradigm that is concerned with studying aggregate lexical distances between varieties of a language. Lexical distance quantifies the

Malte Rosemeyer (University of Freiburg) Modeling frequency effects in language change Abstract: This study shows how processes of language change in which a gram­ matical construction decreases in usage frequency can be modeled in terms of both type and token frequency. It analyzes Spanish compound tense auxiliary selection, suggesting that the replacement of ser ‘be’ with haber ‘have’ was affected by (a) the salience of haber + participle in usage contexts previously associated with the use of ser + participle, and (b) the general token frequency of

learners. 2 Frequency effects: Entrenchment and schematisation As constructions are seen as the units of language in usage-based and constructionist approaches, second language acquisition is, too, seen to be the learning of constructions (Ellis 2013: 368) rather than the learning of rules and vocabulary separately. Accordingly, in this framework, ‘grammar’ is seen as “the cognitive organization of one’s experience with language” (Bybee 2006: 711; Dąbrowska and Divjak 2015: 1) which results in a complex, dynamic and highly organised network where constructions are