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[1] Budnar, M., Uršič, M., Simčič, J., Pelicon, P., Kolar, J., Šelih, V. S., and Strlič, M., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 243, 407 (2006). [2] Budnar, M., Simčič, J., Rupnik, Z., Uršič, M., Pelicon, P., Kolar, J., and Strlič, M., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 219, 41 (2004). [3] Neevel, J. G., in The Iron Gall Ink Meeting Postprints (Brown, J. E., Editor), p. 33. University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 2000. [4] Daniels, V., in The Iron Gall Ink Meeting Postprints (Brown, J

Introduction Iron-gall ink was used extensively between the 12th and 19th centuries in the Western world and in Brazil up to the initial decades of the 20th century ( Rouchon & Bernard, 2015 ). Western civilisation owes much of its documentary memory to the stability of these inks ( Kolar & Strlic, 2006 ; Albro & Biggs, 2008 ). Artisans who produced iron-gall inks in the past followed a common recipe, although some variations were to be observed in the formulae used ( Botti et al., 2005 ; Rouchon et al., 2013 ). The standard formulation has four basic

1 Introduction Paper is one of the most common writing supports in history and has been used in combination with iron gall ink, from the Middle Ages to the nineteenth century, constituting an enormous part of our historic and artistic heritage. There are two well-studied processes that take place in the degradation of these manuscripts: acid hydrolysis and iron(II)-catalysed oxidation of cellulose, both directly related to the presence of ink and leading to the loss of the paper’s mechanical properties ( Rouchon-Quillet et al. 2004 ; Ferrer and Sistach 2007

[1] V. Jancovicová, M. Ceppan, B. Havlinová, M. Reháková, Z. Jakubiková, Chem. Papers 61, 391 (2007) [2] V. Rouchon, M. Duranton, C. Burgaud, E. Pellizzi, B. Lavédrine, K. Janssens, W. de Nolf, G. Nuyts, F. Vanmeert, K. Hellemans, Anal. Chem. 83, 2589 (2011) [3] C. Remazeilles, V. Quillet, J. Bernard, FTIR techniques applied to iron gall inked damaged paper (International Committee for Nondestructive Testing, Rome, 2006) [4

204 Restaurator 21: 204–212  2000 Saur, Munich etc Iron-Gall Ink Corrosion: A Compound-Effect Study by MARGA A.P.C. DE FEBER, JOHN B.G.A. HAVERMANS & PETER DEFIZE INTRODUCTION For about 2000 years, since the Romans, iron-gall inks have been used reaching a peak in popularity during the late Middle Ages. It was a popular ink for docu- mentation, e.g., the Dutch Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC) archives, and for ink drawings, e.g., by Rembrandt and van Gogh. However, now serious problems are occurring: the iron-gall ink literally eats its way through the

INTRODUCTION Iron gall inks were the most commonly used writing and very popular drawing media since antiquity. It is well known that these kinds of inks were produced by mixing aqueous solutions of iron(II) sulphate with extracts of gall nuts.1 Iron gall inks are known to infl uence the structure of cellulose fi bres in a specifi c way, cau- sing the deterioration of paper. The complex chemical processes between the ink and the paper support depend on several factors, ranging from the materials com- position to environmental infl uences as has been mapped in

1 Introduction The written heritage is stored in archives and libraries and incorporates historic and contemporary papers. The dominant writing media is iron gall ink which can change upon ageing and may cause iron gall ink corrosion. The reasons for this degradation are found in unbalanced historic ink recipes with an excess of free iron ions, unfavourable climatic storage conditions, the amount of ink applied, the degree to which it penetrates into the paper and/ or non-adequate prior conservation treatments ( Schönbohm et al. 2004 ). Oxidation and hydrolysis

References Barrow WJ (1963) Permanence/Durability of the Book. A Two-year Research Program. W. J. Barrow Research Laboratories, Richmond. Budnar M, Uršiš M, Simčič J, Pelicon P, Kolar J, Šelih VS, Strlič M (2006) Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 243: 407-416. Ďurovič M (2002) Restaurovani a konzervovani archivalii a knih (Restauration and Conservation of Archivals and Books), Paseka, Prague. Ekenstam A (1936) Uber das Verhalten der Cellulose in Mineralsaure-Losungen, II. Mitteil.: Kinetisches Studium des

Stabilising local areas of loss in iron gall ink copy documents from the Savigny estate by Sonja Titus, Regina Schneller, Enke Huhsmann, Ulrike Hähner and Gerhard Banik Abstract: A local method for the stabilization of weakened iron gall ink areas in iron gall ink copy documents is presented. The special quality of iron gall ink copy process documents, made of thin, ink- permeable paper, is discussed, as well as the special quality of iron gall copying inks because these were modified by hygroscopic additives. These inks remain extremely water sensitive due to

INTRODUCTION Iron gall inks belong to the most common writing materials that were used already since antiquity and practically until the modern time. Cultural repositories all over the world keep large numbers of manuscripts and drawings created with iron gall ink. These often suffered a continuous process of decay. The chemical nature of the ink is an important factor for the preservation of these objects and without its understanding it is not possible to solve the problems of paper degradation. Iron-gall ink corrosion results from their composition and