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. Bioanal. Chem. 375 , 985 (2003). 6 10.1021/jf0615754 , L. Yang, J. Guo, A. Pan, H. Zhang, K. Zhang, Z. Wang, D. Zhang. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 , 15 (2007). 7 Guideline of Detection Methods of Genetically Modified Foods , Korea Food and Drug Administration: Seoul, Korea (2000). 8 Testing Manual for Genetically Modified Agricultural Products , National Agricultural Quality Management Services of Korea: Seoul, Korea (2002). 9 10.1101/gr.6.10.986 , C. A. Heid, J. Stevens, K. J. Livak, P. M. Williams. Genome Res. 6 , 986 (1996). 10 10.1007/s002170100403 , K. Berdal, A

XIV Labelling Genetically Modified Food The banking sector showed that the European banks played a larger role in Canada and Mexico than US banks, but it also demonstrated that, apart from NAFTA’s financial-services dispute-settlement rules that would turn out to be of little moment, transborder governance in this sector was global, not North American. Despite North America’s lack of governance structures, significant policy harmonization between the three countries has occurred infor- mally in related policy areas, but not necessarily because they are mem- bers

judgments, principles, and theories. Is it ethically justifi able to pursue GM crops and foods? Th ere is an objective answer to this question, and we will try here to fi gure out what it is. But we must Ethics and Genetically Modified Food 123 begin with a proper, heavy dose of epistemic humility, acknowledging that few ethicists at the moment seem to think that they know the fi nal answer. Should the law allow GM foods to be grown and marketed? Th e answer to this, and every, public policy question rests ultimately with us—citizens who will in the voting booth

consider the ethical issues surrounding gmo foods in order to explore how international trade rules affect a country’s demo- cratic policy process. Are small countries capable of upholding policy decisions on moral grounds, especially when those decisions are different from international norms? 121 c h a p t e r E I G H T Morality, Genetically Modified Food, and Free Trade BV73-InternationalTrade0920.qx4 9/20/04 2:09 PM Page 121 THE GREAT GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD DEBATE In North America, gmo foods have already reached the dinner plates of virtually every household

Chapter Sixteen Zambia and Genetically Modified Food Aid (4-4) by Alexandra C. Lewin Executive Summary In 2002 the Zambian government rejected 35,000 tons of food aid because of the possibility that it could be genetically modified [GM). During this time roughly 3 million people in Zambia faced severe food shortages and extreme hunger. As the government turned away this food aid, a debate over GM food aid arose globally. The government of Zambia remains firmly against both milled and nonmilled GM food imports. Other governments throughout southern

_ Genetically Modified Foods for Human Health and Nutrition: The Scientific Basis for Benefit/Risk Assessment C. Smith and L. Shukla (editors) A special issue of Trends in Food Science and Technology, Vol. 14, Issues 5-8, pp 169-338, 2003 This special issue reflects the discussions at the final of three ICSU workshops organized to evaluate the scientific basis for the assessment of potential risks and benefits to human health and nutrition of the use of genetically modified food (GMF) crops. International experts in nutrition, medicine, toxicology, molecular

Volume 2 2004 Article 8 Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization CONTROVERSIES OVER THE ADOPTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS Consumer’s Resistance to Genetically Modified Foods: The Role of Information in an Uncertain Environment Wallace E. Huffman, Iowa State University Matthew Rousu, RTI International Jason F. Shogren, University of Wyoming Abebayehu Tegene, USDA/ERS Recommended Citation: Huffman, Wallace E.; Rousu, Matthew; Shogren, Jason F.; and Tegene, Abebayehu (2004) "Consumer’s Resistance to Genetically Modified Foods: The Role of

Volume 5 2007 Article 8 Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization Consumer Response to Information and Second-Generation Genetically Modified Food in India Alok Anand, The Consumer Analytics and Modeling Unit, Citigroup Ron C. Mittelhammer, Washington State University Jill J. McCluskey, Washington State University Recommended Citation: Anand, Alok; Mittelhammer, Ron C.; and McCluskey, Jill J. (2007) "Consumer Response to Information and Second-Generation Genetically Modified Food in India," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization: Vol

Victoria Wibeck Exploring Focus Groups: Analysing Focus Group Data about Genetically Modified Food 1. Introduction A group of five people have gathered in a room to discuss an issue which is urgent but, none the less, difficult to grasp, namely gene technology in connection with food produc- tion. The participants discuss vividly for about an hour; present in the room is also a mod- erator who introduces the topic and, at times, relevant subtopics in the form of open-ended questions. The discussion is tape-recorded, transcribed and submitted to analysis by a

Volume 2 2004 Article 5 Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization CONTROVERSIES OVER THE ADOPTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS Genetically Modified Food Standards as Trade Barriers: Harmonization, Compromise, and Sub-Global Agreements Monika Tothova, Michigan State University James F. Oehmke, Michigan State University Recommended Citation: Tothova, Monika and Oehmke, James F. (2004) "Genetically Modified Food Standards as Trade Barriers: Harmonization, Compromise, and Sub-Global Agreements," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization