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make up 20% of the overall amino acid contributions. Cystine knot domains of growth factors consist typically of ca. 120 residues. From those proteins that have been characterised with regard to their intrinsic stability, it has become apparent that the cystine knot stabilises the structure of the protein. Secondary structure The smallest denominator for secondary structural contributions of the cystine knot domains is their prevailing β-structure. Quaternary structure Growth factor cystine knot proteins associate to homo- or heterodimers with van Willebrand factor

References 1. Stępień-Wyrobiec O, Hrycek A, Wyrobiec G. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta): Its structure, function, and role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Post Hig Med Dosw. 2008;62:688–93. 2. Adorini L. Cytokine-based immunointervention in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Clin Exp Immunol. 2003;132(2):185–92. 3. Flanders KC, Burmester JK. Medical applications of transforming growth factor-beta. Clin Med Res. 2003;1(1):13–20. 4. Krzemień S, Knapczyk P. Aktualne poglądy dotyczące znaczenia transformującego czynnika wzrostu beta

References Anton, E. S., Weskamp, G., Reichardt, L. F., Matthew, W. D. (1994). Nerve growth factor and its low affinity receptor promote Schwann cell migration. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. , 91 (7), 2795-2799. Atchley, W. R., Hall, B. K. (1991). A model for development and evolution of complex morphological structures. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. , 66 (2), 101-157. Attar, E. (2004). Endocrinology of ectopic pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North. Amer. , 31 (4), 779-794. Bouche, G., Gas, N., Prats, H., Baldin, V., Tauber, J. P., Teissie, J., Amalric, F. (1987

discussion comes from a basic and far-reaching principle, which is that formation/production of platelets from megakaryocytes is pivotal to maintain the ‘natural factory’ of growth factors (GFs) fully functioning (besides the process of primary hemostasis). The connection between the function of platelets as the ‘natural factory’ of GFs and the processes of healing and tissue regeneration is the plasticity of platelets. This plasticity is associated with platelet contents and is versatile, i.e. the ability of platelets to orchestrate the release and production of specific

Clin Chem Lab Med 2007;45(10):1347–1352 2007 by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • New York. DOI 10.1515/CCLM.2007.321 2007/451 Article in press - uncorrected proof Cytokines and growth factors in mostly atherosclerotic patients on hemodialysis determined by biochip array technology1) Jadranka Sertic1,2,*, Jasna Slavicek3, Nada Bozina2, Branko Malenica2, Petar Kes3 and Zeljko Reiner4 1 Department of Clinical Chemistry, Zagreb University School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia 2 Clinical Institute of Laboratory Diagnosis, Zagreb University Hospital Center, Zagreb, Croatia

Arthrosc . 2008;16:224-231. 8. Claes S, Verdonk P, Forsyth R, Bellemans J. The “ligamentization” process in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: what happens to the human graft? A systematic review of the literature. Am J Sports Med . 2011;39:2476-2483. 9. Rizzello G, Longo UG, Petrillo S, et al. Growth Factors and Stem Cells for the Management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears. Open Orthop J . 2012;6:525-530. 10. Bissell L, Tibrewal S, Sahni V, Khan WS. Growth factors and platelet rich plasma in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Curr Stem Cell Res

Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering 2017; 3(2): 383–387 Bettina Hiemer*, Kathleen Achenbach, Juliane Pasold, Andreas Wree and Rainer Bader Transient supplementation of growth factor TGF-β1 effectively initiates chondrogenic redifferentiation of human chondrocytes Abstract: Cartilage tissue is avascular with less regeneration potential and therefore, cartilage regeneration is still a major challenge for therapeutic approaches. Commonly used treatment strategies involve the transplantation of autologous chondrocytes into the defect. Before that

References Mauras N, Haymond MW. Are the metabolic effects of GH and IGF-I separable? Growth Horm IGF Res 2005; 15: 19-27. O'Dell SD, Day IN. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). Int J Biochem Cell Biol 1998; 30: 767-71. Kim JJ, Accilli D. Signaling through IGF-I and insulin receptors: where is the specificity? Growth Horm IGF Res 2002; 12: 84-90. Kupfer SR, Underwood LE, Baxter RC, Clemmons DR. Enhancement of the anabolic effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I by use of both agents simultaneously. J Clin Invest 1993; 91: 391

1 Introduction Platelet-rich blood derivatives are used as autologous transplants in the field of wound care, general surgery and sports medicine [ 1 ]. The main factor for the promotion of healing by applying autologous blood products are growth factors (GF) released by thrombocytes, like platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) [ 2 ]. Physiologically growth factors are released after thrombocyte activation due to contact with collagen and other thrombocytes [ 3 ]. The initial release of GF due to activation is followed by degradation of the platelets. In vitro

Clin Chem Lab Med 2003; 41(5):646–651 © 2003 by Walter de Gruyter · Berlin · New York Barbara Mroczko1, Maciej Szmitkowski1* and Bogna Okulczyk2 1 Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, 2 Department of Second General Surgery, Medical Academy, Białystok, Poland Hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) are involved in the regulation of growth and spread of cancer. There- fore, in the present study, we have investigated in colorectal cancer patients the serum levels of selected HGFs, such as stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin 3 (IL-3), granulocyte