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Der ›ducatus‹ im Spannungsfeld zwischen römischem Einfluss und eigener Entwicklung

concept of ›honour‹. After all, the subject of ›administration and emotions‹ concerns not only individual civil servants but also the question of how emotions develop in social interactions within the administration – in hierarchical relationships or in more horizontal relations. Above all, however, it is also about the emotions of the administrative clientele with which administration is confronted and with which it has to deal. Thus, various research perspectives for the history of administration are opened up, of which some are only roughly sketched here


Stefan Nellen who investigate the emotional impact of Swiss diplomatic reports by means of a quantitative »sentiment analysis«. They examine the conditions under which super-individual subjects of emotion can be aggregated from large textual datasets and propose a theoretical framework for their interpretation. As far as the question of specific emotions and their significance is concerned, the strongly emotional factor of honour plays a central role in the history of administration. The fact that honour is not an emotional resource with constant content is illustrated

evaluate the significance of Cappadocia in the eastern empire. Some aspects of this evaluation could, probably should, be elaborated. M. tends to focus on the careers of the specific men, the imperial magistrates, bishops, monks, teachers, and students, who held the offices or filled the institutional roles. But a history of administration and institutions has its limits, and an analysis of the transformation of a region also needs to consider more abstract themes about culture and religion, such as the place of Greek culture in a primarily rural society, the tension

of an immunocompromised state (e.g., malignancy), or history of administration of antibiotics before visiting the emergency department within the previous 14 days. Demographic data and baseline characteristics of patients were collected at the time of admission. Patients were classified according to their severity at the time of diagnosis, as follows: Group 1, SIRS; Group 2, sepsis; and Group 3, severe sepsis/septic shock [1]. Diagnosis of SIRS and sepsis The diagnosis of SIRS was based on the satisfaction of two or more of the following previously reported

.7-8.5 years) age-matched controls were enrolled. Con- trols were selected from patients seen in the general pediatrics clinic because of acute problems such as otitis media or upper respiratory infections. The criteria for entry into the study in the PA group included the appearance of pubic and/or axillary hair before 8 years of age, adrenal androgens in Tanner stage 2 range20, and no breast development on physical examination. The girls with signs of systemic virilization, adrenal or ovarian androgen-producing lesions, or history of administration or accidental

with adrenal and ovarian androgen-producing lesions and a history of administration and/or accidental ingestion of sexual steroids. True precocious puberty and late-onset congenital adrenal hyper- plasia (LOCAH) were excluded on the basis of normal results of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) test and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test, respectively. An US examination was also performed in 57 normal prepubertal girls matched for age (control [C] group). All participants were assessed with regard to stature, weight, pubic hair development

, or history of administration or accidental ingestion of sexual steroids. True precocious puberty and late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH) were excluded on the basis of normal results of luteinizing hormone- releasing hormone (LHRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) tests, respectively. Serum for hormonal measurements was drawn between 08.00 and 10.00 hours, and stored at -20°C. The levels of testosterone (T), androstene- dione (Δ4Α), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 17- hydroxyprogesterone (170HP), 17-hydroxypreg- nenolone (Δ517P), 11

369]. slightly earlier, in 1928, the act on white-col- lar workers’ insurance provided insurance regulations for this particular group [Journal of laws, 1927, no. 106, item 911]. 7 Journal of laws [Dz. U.] no. 21, item 164; Witkowski Wojciech, Historia administra- cji w Polsce 1764-1989 [History of Administration in Poland 1764-1989], PWN, War szawa 2007, p. 374; Żyliński Tadeusz, Zaopatrzenie emerytalne służby państwowej w okresie międzywo- jennym [Retirement provisions for state officials in the years 1918-1939], Acta Universatis Wratislaviensis, Prawo cXXI

diplomatics. Besides these trends, many individual studies use documentary material to enhance our knowledge of pre-modern societies in the Islamicate world. Van- thieghem revisits the Qurra letters (no. 42) and Tillier (no. 58), Sijpesteijn (no. 56), and Kameya (no. 42) examine the history of administration practices in early Islamic Egypt. Al-Jallad (no. 16) and de Jong (no. 41) use Greek sources to enhance our understanding of Arabic in pre-Islamic times. Boud’hors (no. 21), Cromwell (no. 28), and Legendre (no. 45) show how non-Muslim communities in Egypt changed