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addition of the Gaussian scattering width caused by each discrete step: 2 2 2 , 1, , 2, , , ,m n m n m n N m nσ σ σ σ= + +⋅⋅⋅+ (2), where N is the number of steps (or sample thickness) in front of pixel ( m , n ). To experimentally verify this assump- tion, we compared the dark-fi eld image contrast from a grat- ing interferometer operated at a monochromatic laser-based inverse Compton X-ray source [13, 14] with the image signal obtained from scanning SAXS microscopy [15] using mono- chromatic synchrotron radiation. The sample used in this study is a

Abstract

Recurrent novae occurring in symbiotic binaries are candidate sources of high energy photons, reaching GeV energies. Such emission is a consequence of particle acceleration leading to pion production. the shock between matter ejected by the white dwarf, undergoing a nova explosion, and the wind from the red giant companion are responsible for such a process, which mimics a supernova remnant but with much smaller energetic output and much shorter time scales. Inverse Compton can also be responsible for high energy emission. Recent examples are V407 Cyg, detected by Fermi, and RS Oph, which unfortunately exploded in 2006, before Fermi was launched.

Astrophysics (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Two-volume textbook containing physically insightful derivations of the Larmor equation and formulas for free–free emission, synchrotron radiation, and inverse- Compton scattering. Lorimer, D. L., and Kramer, M. (2005). Handbook of Pulsar Astronomy. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Comprehensive review of pulsar observational techniques and results. Lyne, A. G., and Graham-Smith, F. (1998). Pulsar Astronomy (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. A very readable book covering most of pulsar

present a new concept of x-ray microbeam generation based on conventional x-ray technology, that we term line focus x-ray tube (LFXT). In LFXTs an electron beam is focused to an extremely thin focal spot on a rapidly rotating tungsten target. A change in the mechanisms of target heating allows very high electron beam currents without melting the target material. In terms of photon flux and coherence length, the performance of the line focus x-ray tube compares with inverse Compton scattering sources. Moreover, the LFXT is capable of producing dose rates of up to

Femtsecond laser 171 Fenestration 81 FIR emitting ceramics and  fibers 255 FLIM 35 Guttural pouch 89 Hair removal 15 H&E technique 183 Hemilaminectomy 81 Hyperplastic turbinate 215 IEC 60825-1 123 Immune response 241 Inflammation 241, 299 Infrared sauna 255 Intervertebral disc 75 Intervertebral disc  degeneration 103 Intervertebral disc disease 81 Intraocular 195 Inverse Compton 47 Joint pain 299 Larynx 89 Laser 15, 51, 75 Laser-ablation 155 Laser in dermatology 309 Laser safety 123 Laser tattoo removal 207 Light dose 35 Living cells 35 Low intensity laser therapy 287

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-Dimensional Aperture Antennas 92 3.4 Waveguides 100 3.5 Radio Telescopes 102 3.6 Radiometers 112 3.7 Interferometers 126 4 Free-Free Radiation 141 4.1 Thermal and Nonthermal Emission 141 4.2 HII Regions 141 4.3 Free–Free Radio Emission from HII Regions 146 5 Synchrotron Radiation 160 5.1 Magnetobremsstrahlung 160 5.2 Synchrotron Power 163 5.3 Synchrotron Spectra 167 5.4 Synchrotron Sources 178 5.5 Inverse-Compton Scattering 188 5.6 Extragalactic Radio Sources 194 vi • Contents 6 Pulsars 208 6.1 Pulsar Properties 208 6.2 Pulsars and the Interstellar Medium 222 6.3 Pulsar Timing 225 7

a conserved constant in time. --0--0--0--0--0--0--0-- Problem 2.1. (Compton scattering.) A photon of wavelength A. hits a stationary electron (mass me) and comes off with wavelength A.' at an angle (). Derive the expression A.'-A. = (h/me)(l-cos()). Problem 2.2. (a) When a photon scatters off a charged particle which is moving with a speed very nearly that of light, the photon is said to have undergone an inverse Compton scattering. Consider an inverse Compton scattering in which a charged particle of rest mass m and total mass-energy (as seen 11 12

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.4.7 Processes in an Intense Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 3.4.8 The Razin-Tsytovich Effect . . . . . . 148 3.5 Compton Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 3.5.1 Physical Mechanism of the Inverse Compton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 3.5.2 The Spectrum of Inverse Compton Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 3.5.3 About the Compton Parameter . . . . 167 3.5.4 Self-synchro-Compton and Compton Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 3.5.5 Compton Broadening . . . . . . . . . 171 3.6 Relativistic Effects

higher for the high- Z material, for which electron binding to the atoms is more significant. 10.3 Inverse Compton sources In the previous section we considered the electron to be at rest, which is a reasonable approximation for electrons in a solid in a laboratory frame. In that case, the incom- ing photon imparts energy to the electron. However, if the electron is initially at high velocity, it can lose energy, and the output photon energy can be higher than the input. This phenomenon is known as inverse Compton scattering, and it can be used to con- vert vis i

development in china: A brief review and perspectives Computing in Science & Engineering 21 1 6 16 [27] Seipt, D., Kharin, V., and Rykovanov, S. 2019. Optimizing laser pulses for narrowband inverse compton sources in the high-intensity regime. arXiv preprint arXiv:1902.10777 Seipt D. Kharin V. Rykovanov S. 2019 Optimizing laser pulses for narrowband inverse compton sources in the high-intensity regime arXiv preprint arXiv:1902.10777 [28] Sinitskiy, A. V., and Pande, V. S. 2018. Deep neural network computes electron densities and energies of a large set of organic molecules