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REFERENCES 1. Beedkar A, Parikh R, Deshmukh P. Heart Failure and the Iron Deficiency. J Assoc Physicians India . 2017;65:79-80. 2. Weiss G, Goodnough LT. Anemia of chronic disease. N Engl J Med . 2005;352:1011-1023. 3. Cairo G, Bernuzzi F, Recalcati S. A precious metal: Iron, an essential nutrient for all cells. Genes Nutr . 2006;1:25-39. 4. Moos T. Brain iron homeostasis. Dan Med Bull . 2002;49;279-301. 5. Klip IT, Comin-Colet J, Voors AA, et al. Iron deficiency in chronic heart failure: an international pooled analysis. Am Heart J . 2013;165:575-582.e3 6

Nebe C.T. Edited by: Introduction Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia in at least 50% of all cases [ 1 ]. The diagnosis in young patients without comorbidities is rather simple by determining the blood count and ferritin. However, both the diagnosis and the therapy of disorders in iron metabolism are challenging if they occur in the context of renal anemia or in combination with acute or chronic inflammatory diseases, infections, or malignant tumors [ 2 ]. This so-called “anemia of chronic disease” (ACD) is the second most frequent anemia after

References 1 De Mayer E, Adiels-Teyman M. The prevalence of anemia in the world. World Health Stat Q 1985 ; 38 : 302 –16. 2 Wharton BA. Iron deficiency in children: detection and prevention. Br J Haematol 1999 ; 106 : 270 –80. 3 Hurtado EK, Claussen AH, Scott KG. Early childhood anemia and mild or moderate mental retardation. Am J Nutr 1999 ; 69 : 115 –9. 4 Watkins WE, Pollitt E. Iron deficiency and cognition among school-age children. In: Dopping J, ed. Brain, behavior and iron in infant diet. London: Springer Verlag 1990:179–97. 5 Lozoff B. Has iron

Introduction Anemia is currently defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a hemoglobin (Hb) level lower than 13 g/dL in men and 12 g/dL in women [ 1 ]. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and it affects an estimated 1–2 billion people worldwide. In developing countries, over 50% of pregnant women are anemic, as are 46–66% of children under 4 years old, with one-half attributed to iron deficiency [ 2 ], [ 3 ]. Human serum albumin, a single chain of 585 amino acids, consists of three structurally homologous, largely helical domains (I

References 1. Clark SF. Iron deficiency anemia: Diagnosis and management. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2009;25(2):122-8. DOI: 10.1097/MOG.0b013e32831ef1cd 2. Nissenson AR, Goodnough LT, Dubois RW. Anaemia: not just an innocent bystander? Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(12):1400-4. DOI: 10.1001/ archinte.163.12.1400 3. Black M.M. Integrated strategies needed to prevent iron deficiency and to promote early child development. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2012 Jun;26(2-3):120-3. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2012.04.020 4. Sennels HP, Jørgensen HL, Hansen AL, Goetze JP, Fahrenkrug J. Diurnal

Bidlingmaier M. Kratzsch J. Edited by: Introduction Iron deficiency anemia (IDA), also known as sideropenic anemia, is one of the most common diseases in infancy and adults [ 1 ]. It is associated with a reduced quality of life [ 1 ], [ 2 ]. This disease occurs when there is insufficient intake of iron-containing foods or insufficient absorption of iron or chronic bleeding, and hemoglobin (Hb), which bears iron, cannot be formed. The cost of caring for a patient with IDA continues to grow with the increasing incidence of the diseases [ 1 ]. In the US, between 2

Diabetes Federation Atlas 6th edition, 2010. Accessed at: http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas. 26. Brooks AP, Metcalfe J, Day JL, Edwards MS. Iron deficiency and glycosylated haemoglobin A. Lancet 8186(2):141, 1980. 27. Sluiter WJ, van Essen LH, Reitsma WD, Doorenbos H. Glycosylated haemoglobin and iron deficiency. Lancet 2(8193): 531-532, 1980. 28. Mitchell TR, Anderson D, Shepperd J. Iron deficiency, haemochromatosis, and glycosylated haemoglobin. Lancet 2 (8197): 747, 1980. 29. Davis RE, McCann VJ, Nicol DJ. Influence of iron-deficiency anaemia on the glycosylated

Introduction Thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are the most common causes of microcytic anemia . Thalassemia is highly prevalent in the ‘thalassemia belt’ ranging from the Mediterranean basin, via the Middle East and the Arabic peninsula to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Due to population migration, thalassemia genes have nowadays spread almost globally. IDA is a very frequent condition, not only in developing countries due to insufficient iron intake, but also in industrialized regions, where women in their fertile years often have

References 1. PERNEFRI (Indonesian Society of Nephrology and Hypertension). Konsensus manajemen anemia pada penyakit ginjal kronik (Consensus on management of anemia in chronic kidney disease), 2011. Jakarta; 2011, p. 3-15. 2. BUTTARELLO M, PAJOLA R, NOVELO E, REBESCHINI M, GANTARO S, OLIOSI F, et al. Diagnosis of iron deficiency in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Am J Clin Pathol. 2010; 133:949-54. 3. CHUANG CL, LIU RS, WEI YH, HUANG TP, TARNG IC. Early prediction of response to intravenous iron supplementation by reticulocyte haemoglobin content and high

REFERENCES 1. Camaschella C. New insights into iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia. Blood Rev 2017; 31(4): 225-33. 2. Biomarkers Definition Working Group. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: preferred definitions and conceptual framework. Clin Pharmacol Therapeutics 2001; 69: 89-95. 3. Weiss G, Goodnough LT. Anemia of chronic disease. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 1011-23. 4. Jain S, Gautam V, Naseem S. Acute-phase proteins: As diagnostic tool. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2011; 3(1): 118-27. 5. Punnonen K, Irjala K, Rajamäki A. Serum transferrin receptor and its ratio