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Roger Berger and Bastian Baumeister Repetition Effects in Laboratory Experiments Abstract: Subjects of laboratory experiments are often recruited from a subject pool. Such experiments are typically similar in content and demand, and so learning pro- cesses can be assumed when the same subjects attend two subsequent experimental sessions. We label these “repetition effects”, because in these cases the learning pro- cesses differ from those where repeated decisions are made within a singular exper- iment. Such repetition effects endanger the validity of laboratory

long-term and dynamic effects in experimental designs with fixed durations and geographically dispersed test subjects ( Calnitsky, 2019 ). This is not to say that field experiments do not have their own considerable advantages. Rather than dismiss the valuable research already conducted, I aim to complement it with economic laboratory experiments. Economic lab experiments usually entail tasking human participants with playing a game in a monitored computer lab. A financial incentive is created by rewarding participants with cash according to their success. When other

University. Brno. Berná, Z., & Špalek, J. (2015). Factors Influencing Compliance Behavior in a Tax Laboratory Experiment. In Matějová, L., & Špalková, D. Proceedings of the 19th international conference Current trends in public sector research. 103-109. Berná, Z., & Špalek, J. (2014). Can Experimental and Behavioral Economics Inform Public Policy? Lesson from a Tax Compliance Experiment. In Lucie Sedmihradská. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Public Finance 2014. 28−37. Camerer, C., Loewenstein, G., & Prelec, D. (2005

Partizipation als Laborexperiment Paradoxien der Laiendeliberation in Technikfragen Participation as a Laboratory Experiment Paradoxes of Deliberation on Technology Issues by Lay People Alexander Bogner Institut für Technikfolgen-Abschätzung der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Strohgasse 45, 1030 Wien, Austria E-Mail: abogner@oeaw.ac.at Zusammenfassung: Die Forderung nach Partizipation stellt gerade im Bereich der Technologiepolitik einen anhaltenden Trend dar. Im Zuge ihrer Verwirklichung hat sich ein weitläufiger Methodenkanon partizipativer

631 20 LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS ON SPECIATION James D. Fry KEY CONCEPTS WHAT PAST EXPERIMENTS HAVE TAUGHT US NEGLECTED QUESTIONS GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR EXPERIMENTS ON SPECIATION Experimental Evolution: Concepts, Methods, and Applications of Selection Experiments, edited by Theodore Garland, Jr., and Michael R. Rose. Copyright © by the Regents of the University of California. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. Garland_ch20.qxd 8/3/09 2:08 PM Page 631 After neglecting the subject for nearly a century after the publication of The Origin of Species

Framing on Risky Decisions: A Meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 75(1), 23-55. Kühberger, A., Schulte-Mecklenbeck, M., & Perner, J. (2002). Framing decisions: Hypothetical and real. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 89(2), 1162-1175. Lassiter, G. D., Lindberg, M. J., González-Vallejo, C., Bellezza, F. S., & Phillips, N. D. (2009). The deliberation-without-attention effect: evidence for an artifactual interpretation. Psychological Science, 20(6), 671-675. Levitt, S. D., & List, J. A. (2007). What do laboratory

1 Introduction Exchange asymmetry has been reported in many laboratory experiments, beginning with Knetsch (1989) . In his classic experiment, Knetsch randomly endowed participants with either a mug or a candy bar and offered them an opportunity to exchange it for the alternative. About 90% of those receiving either a mug or a candy bar chose to keep their original endowment. Tests of exchange asymmetry, which have been frequently replicated using Knetsch’s original experimental design (e.g. Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler 1990 ), have been used to motivate an