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in grade 9, while tenth grade students were unaffected. This provides a natural experiment for analyzing the impact on schooling achievements and educational choice. We find negative effects on grades in mathematics, but no effects in German literature. More- over, a significant share of females were found to delay university enrollment. JEL classification: I21, J18, C21. Keywords: Student performance; schooling quality; educational choice; learning intensity; natural experiment. 1. INTRODUCTION With the intention of enabling the earlier labor market participation

states to identify the effects on post-secondary educa- tion decisions and to evaluate potential effect mechanisms. The results show that uni- versity enrolment of female students decreased in the first year after graduation in all analyzed states, whereas participation in voluntary service or staying abroad increased. Furthermore, students from non-academic families are more affected than students from an academic family background. JEL classification: I21, J18, C21. Keywords: School duration; learning intensity; post-secondary education decisions; Germany. 1

1 Introduction Starting in 2000, most German states ( Länder ) reduced secondary school duration in the academic track ( Gymnasium ) from nine (G9) to eight (G8) years, thereby responding to the comparatively high age of German academic track graduates and unsatisfactory results from the first round of PISA tests. Importantly, while school duration was reduced from nine to eight years, the federal requirements for cumulative instruction time for high school students remained the same. Therefore, the student’s learning intensity increased substantially. The G8

–47. Dahmann S. 2017 How does education improve cognitive skills? Instructional time versus timing of instruction Labour Economics Dahmann, S. und S. Anger (2018), Cross-fertilizing gains or crowding out? Schooling intensity and noncognitive skills, HCEO Working Papers 2018-065, The University of Chicago. Dahmann S. Anger S. 2018 Cross-fertilizing gains or crowding out? Schooling intensity and noncognitive skills, unveröffentlichtes Manuskript. Garcia, S. C. (2018), Inequality of educational opportunities and the role of learning intensity: Evidence from a quasi

exercises or goals. Within the framework of the same course, several strategies can be applied to a learner, depending on his ambitions (acquiring maybe not the whole course but a part). The choice of the strategy depends also on the learning intensity, the initial knowledge, the type of learner determined on the base of the analysis of the preceding learning process, special events in the learning process (e.g. unexpected difficulties arising during acquiring a concrete information), maybe the age of the learner. Thus, a course containing a sufficient number of

., S. L. Thomsen, and B. Büttner. 2014. “Variation of Learning Intensity in Late Adolescence and the Effect on Personality Traits.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A 177 (4): 861–92, . 10.1111/rssa.12079 Thiel H. Thomsen S. L. Büttner B. 2014 Variation of Learning Intensity in Late Adolescence and the Effect on Personality Traits Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A 177 4 861 92 Volland, B. 2019. “Conscientious Consumers? Personality, Preferences and Expenditures

network, i.e., n π ∗ = N − 1. $n_\pi ^ * = N - 1.$ This phenomenon occurs first in small and then in large networks, but only in the case of higher values of spillover intensity s . Indeed, by (22), when N is sufficiently high, the marginal revenue of optimal R&D investment is smaller than marginal cost γx * ; therefore ∂ π ∗ ∂ n > 0 ${{\partial {\pi ^ * }} \over {\partial n}} > 0$ and n * = N –1 only when ∂ π ∗ ∂ x < 0 , ${{\partial {\pi ^ * }} \over {\partial x}} < 0,$ which occurs with sufficiently high levels of s . For higher learning intensity we have

heroes of foreign missions in the interval were undoubtedly the Jesuits, whose deeds and terrible sufferings for the cause are all too little known or recognized or praised. Their great and typical representative missionary is Francis Xavier. And it makes one realize how utterly this vast problem has been neglected when we find ourselves obliged, after Xavier, to make another leap, this time of two hundred years. This brings us to the third great name—for learning, intensity, and burning faith and love, worthy to stand beside the other t w o — Henry Martyn

is the fourth basic principle. When the individual at play must abide by the rules of the game, he can, after all, withdraw from the game itself. The consciously responsible individual, however, is not free to refuse to serve his fellowmen. In this respect play and achievement differ. This is what Otto calls instructional guidance which educates in strict self-education to a consciousness of duty or achievement. T o the four basic pedagogical principles Otto adds two didactic principles, viz. maximum intensity, and economy and hygiene in learning. Intensity

Birdwhistell's initial refinement of kinesics breaks down the components ofevery human interaction (1970; cf. Prost's paper, infra). My own recent research has been in the kinesics of schoolroom beha- vior as recorded on Super-8 film (Collier 1973). Proxemics and kinesics have cued team analysts to the emotional state and learning intensity of students and also the intensity of their teachers. This has allowed us to make definitive observations of the effectiveness of various circumstances and styles of school culture. Though this research has been done with film rather than