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Who is responsible? Participant roles in legal interpreting cases ESTER S. M. LEUNG and JOHN GIBBONS Abstract Goffman (1981) provides the framework for the analysis of the different & ‘participant’ roles played by speakers in conversation. They are: the role of the ‘animator’, the sounding box from which utterances comes; the ‘author’, the agent who puts together, composes, or scripts the lines that are uttered; and that of the ‘principal’, the party to whose position, stand, and belief the words attest. Legal interpreters often face various dilemmas with regard

-Japanese interpreter, Gen-emon Imamura Eisei]. Tokyo: Maruzen Library. Mizuno, Makiko. 2005. Historical review of criminal cases involving foreigners and legal interpreting. The Journal of Senri Kinran University 2: 21–29. Mizuno, Makiko. 2008. Nick Baker case: The challenges encountered in improving the quality control of legal interpretation in Japan. Kinjo Gakjuin Daigku Ronshu Studies in Social Science 5, 1: 34–41. Mizuno, Makiko. 2015. The sentence-ending particle Ne used by lawyers in cross-examination and its English interpretation. Language and Law 2: 85–105. Mizuno

interpreting in police interviews. The interpreters’ formal educational qualifications by language is shown in Table 1 . Spanish and Mandarin interpreters had more formal educational qualifications than Arabic interpreters. Fifty-five per cent of the Spanish and Mandarin interpreters reported completion of a university degree, compared to only 35.7% of Arabic interpreters. Similarly, Spanish and Mandarin interpreters had received more specialised legal interpreting training than Arabic interpreters. Forty-nine percent of the Spanish interpreters (48.5%) had received legal

concerning the transfer of meaning (i. e. cohesion, correct transmission of meaning, and complete transmission of the original speech). Subsequently, Pérez-Luzardo Díaz (2007) asked a small group of Spanish law lecturers to define the notion of “style”. Also in line with the diversity of the explanations given by researchers, the subjects in the experiment very much diverged as to the meaning of style, and as to what may amount to a stylistic nuisance in the context of legal interpreting. Finally, building on these previous studies, Pérez-Luzardo Díaz (2015) undertook

International Journal for Legal Communication

1 Introduction Although interpreting for the police in multicultural communities such as Australia is one of several settings in legal interpreting, it is perhaps the least examined ( Gamal 2014c ). In the field of police interpreting, there is a lot more than linguistic knowledge that interpreters need to possess, and a lot more than security clearance that police should be wary of. The field is usually tense with more bad news than good, and interpreters work within an environment that places the strict spirit of the law above all other social and cultural

simply be defined as the sayings and practices of the prophet Mohammad, his companions and their companions on condition that their sayings and practices run in line with the content of the Holy Qurʾān and that of the Sunna of the Prophet . Islamic legal culture, as any other legal culture, is replete with terms and statements, which are deemed an important part of legal Arabic and therefore Islamic jurisprudence. In other words, such Islamic terms and statements can never be legally interpreted unless the translator is fully acquainted with Islamic Law, Islamic


ix Abbreviations APCI Association of Police and Court Interpreters CIoL Chartered Institute of Linguists DIT Defining Issues Test LIT Legal Interpreting and Translation NICHD National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NRPSI National Register of Public Service Interpreters PI4J Professional Interpreters for Justice PSIT Public Service Interpreting and Translation TIC Trauma-informed Care TII Trauma-informed Interpreting TIS Trauma-informed Services UNCRC United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child VCI Videoconference Interpreting VT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Yasunari Fujii ‘You must have a wealth of stories’: A cross-linguistic comparison of addressee support behaviour of Australians and Japanese . . . . 325 Tim Greer Accomplishing difference in bilingual interaction: Translation as backwards-oriented medium-repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Andromahi Koufogiorgou When a dying language becomes a lingua franca . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Ester S. M. Leung and John Gibbons Who is responsible? Participant roles in legal interpreting cases . . 177 Derrin Pinto Passing greetings and interactional style: A