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©Freund Publishing House Ltd. International Journal of Turbo and Jet Engines, 23, 233-257 (2006) Nozzle Expansion Level Effect on Suddenly Expanded Flow Sher Afghan Khan1 and E. Rathakrishnan2 Department of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India Abstract This investigation focuses attention on the effectiveness of active control in the form of micro-jets, located at the base region of a suddenly expanded axi-symmteric duct, to control the base pressure. The experiments were conducted for Mach numbers 1.25,1.3,1.48,1.6,1.8, 2

not in the same manner. For Sweden we find a negative impact in accordance with the Holland hypothesis, whereas for Germany and the Netherlands we find the opposite in support of the Cukierman–Meltzer hypothesis. In a sensitivity analysis we show that an arbitrary choice of the heteroscedasticity parameter influences this relationship significantly. JEL classification: C22, E31. Keywords: GARCH-in-mean; inflation; level effect; nominal uncertainty; power transformation. 1. INTRODUCTION The issue of the welfare costs of inflation has been one of the most researched

- taining acid, iodate, hydrogen peroxide, and malonic acid. H2SO4 was used as an acid; if HClO4 is used, cerium iodate precipitates. Cerium(III) oxalate typically precipitates by the time oscillations end. Ce(III) at low concentrations is roughly three times as effective as Mn(II). At higher catalyst con- centrations, there is a leveling effect for both. Oscillatory behavior with different concentrations is explored. Response to concentration change and inhibitors is similar with both catalysts. The mecha- nistic steps involving the catalysts must be similar. Ce(IV) is

, minute) ranged between -0.007 (sugar solution 1%) and -0.029 (control). Pretreatments did in fact influence the shrinkage both at 10 and 30 % moisture levels. Effect on shrinkage was more pronounced at 30 % than 10 % moisture level. Visual assessment and photographs suggest that pretreatments with calcium chloride and sodium chloride had better texture and visual appeal than other pre-drying treatments. Duration of drying to reach 10% moisture level ranged between 180.0 and 241.67 minutes. Variations were observed between samples for parameters re-hydration ratio and

aid also has a levelling effect. Together with the factor 'legal representation' it decisively structures the form in which proceedings are ended. Though higher income groups are burdened with spouse maintenance payments more frequently this does not have an effect on the amounts paid with the exception of the 'adequate spouse main­ tenance' which is seldom awarded. 1 . Rechtspolitische Kontroversen um den Ehegattenunterhalt Das seit dem 1 . 7 . 1 977 in der Bundesrepublik geltende Unterhaltsrecht wurde aufgrund der breiten Fächerung der Anspruchsgrundlagen


This paper presents an investigation of impact strength of sponge gourd, coir, and jute fibers reinforced epoxy resin-based composites. Impact strength of specimens, made of composites with various proportions of wt% ratio of resin and hardener, wt% of resin and hardener, wt% ratio of sponge gourd and jute, wt% ratio of sponge gourd and coir, was measured. Design of experiment was done by Taguchi method using four control factors with three levels. Effect of the above control factors on impact strength was examined and the best combinations of control factors are advised. Confirmation test was performed by using this combination and the percentage of contribution of the above factors on impact strength was investigated by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Contour and interaction plots provide helpfully examines to explore the combined influences of different control factors on output characteristics. The regression equation represents a mathematical model that relates control factors with impact strength.


The aim of this study was to assess the: (i) gender; (ii) performance and; (iii) gender versus performance interactions in young swimmers’ anthropometric, kinematic and energetic variables. One hundred and thirty six young swimmers (62 boys: 12.76 ± 0.72 years old at Tanner stages 1-2 by self-evaluation; and 64 girls: 11.89 ± 0.93 years old at Tanner stages 1-2 by self-evaluation) were evaluated. Performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetic variables were selected. There was a non-significant gender effect on performance, body mass, height, arm span, trunk transverse surface area, stroke length, speed fluctuation, swimming velocity, propulsive efficiency, stroke index and critical velocity. A significant gender effect was found for foot surface area, hand surface area and stroke frequency. A significant sports level effect was verified for all variables, except for stroke frequency, speed fluctuation and propulsive efficiency. Overall, swimmers in quartile 1 (the ones with highest sports level) had higher anthropometric dimensions, better stroke mechanics and energetics. These traits decrease consistently throughout following quartiles up to the fourth one (i.e. swimmers with the lowest sports level). There was a non-significant interaction between gender and sports level for all variables. Our main conclusions were as follows: (i) there are non-significant differences in performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics between boys and girls; (ii) swimmers with best performance are taller, have higher surface areas and better stroke mechanics; (iii) there are non-significant interactions between sports level and gender for anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics.


The majority of mass men in the American environment exhibit predictable and similar patterns of behavior as tourists. Pre-Industrial Revolution modes of traveling as liberation and exploration are now thwarted by the leveling effect of globalization and the illusion of information fueled by the all-pervasive mass media. Claims about the role of routine or the quest for authenticity are challenged as genuine motivations for mass tourism. Both the American culture and travel destinations in developing countries have authentic content that is largely ignored in favor of sensationalism and cliché. Excessive regimentation in the US creates the acute need for transcending to which popular culture finds accessible solutions through tourism: an experience of concentrated yet vague exoticism which feels liberating without yielding exploration. Travel destinations are shaped to American standards of material comfort and even adopt western popular culture icons in an effort to supply accessible familiar experiences of western entertainment. Various kinds of difficulty that once stimulated travelers are now relieved by travel agencies, rendering the experience of traveling less personal and more like TV entertainment. Old notions of space, time and reality itself are blurred in favor of a hyper-reality where fiction dominates.


Background and aims

Acute pain is differentiated from chronic pain by its sudden onset and short duration; in contrast, chronic pain is characterized by a duration of at least several months, typically considered longer than normal healing time. Despite differences in definition, there is little information on how types of self-management strategies or outcomes differ when pain is chronic rather than acute. Additionally, age and gender are thought to be related to types of strategies used and outcomes. However, strategies used and outcomes can be influenced by level of education, socioeconomic status, occupation, and access to the health care system, which can confound associations to type of pain, age or gender. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of strategies used for pain self-management and outcomes with type of pain, acute or chronic, age, or gender in a socioeconomically homogenous population, pharmacists.


Pharmacists with acute or chronic pain and a valid email completed an on-line questionnaire on demographic characteristics, pain characteristics, pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies for managing pain, and outcomes (e.g. pain intensity). Univariate analysis was conducted by stratifying on type of pain (acute or chronic), then stratifying on gender (men vs. women) and age (younger vs. older). The a priori alpha level was 0.05.


A total of 366 pharmacists completed the questionnaire, 212 with acute pain (average age=44±12.1; 36% men) and 154 with chronic pain (average age=53±14.0; 48% men). The chronic pain group reported substantially higher levels of pain before treatment, level of post-treatment pain, level of pain at which sleep was possible, and goal pain levels (effect sizes [ES’s]=0.37–0.61). The chronic pain group were substantially more likely to use prescription non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDS), opioids, and non-prescription pain relievers (ES’s=0.29–0.80), and non-medical strategies (ES’s=0.56–0.77). Participants with chronic pain also were less confident (ES=0.54) and less satisfied (ES=0.52). In contrast, there were no differences within either the acute or chronic pain groups related to gender and outcomes. In the acute pain group, there also were no gender differences related to management strategies. However, younger age in the acute pain group was associated with use of herbal remedies and use of rest. Within the chronic pain group, men were more likely to use NSAIDS and women more likely to use hot/cold packs or massage while older participants were more likely to use massage. Variability in post-treatment level of pain and percent relief was high in all groups (coefficient of variation=25%–100%).


The differences between acute and chronic pain were substantial and included differences in demographic characteristics, pain characteristics, management strategies used, and outcomes. In contrast, few associations between age and gender with either management strategies or outcomes were identified, although the variability was high.


When managing or researching pain management, acute pain should be differentiated from chronic pain. Because of the substantial variability within the gender and age groups, an individual approach to pain management irrespective of age and gender may be most useful.


g Q ISSN 0334-0082 & JET-ENGINES CONTENTS VOL. 23, NO. 4, 2006 Performance Characteristics of a Small-Scale Axial-Type Turbine Operated in a Low Partial Admission Rate Chong-Hyun Cho, Tae-Hwan Cho, Soo-Yong Cho 211 Computational Studies on Flow Through De Laval Nozzle C.Manisankar, S.Gnanasekar, C.Senthil Kumar, S.Elangovan and E.Rathakrishnan 223 Nozzle Expansion Level Effect on Suddenly Expanded Flow Sher Afghan Khan and E.Rathakrishnan 233 Gas Turbine Power Augmentation by Inlet Fogging Hsiao-Wei D.Chiang and Pai-Yi Wang , 259 Experimental