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nanocomposite (WPC nnc ) was investigated. The tensile strength, tensile modulus, fl exural strength, and fl exural modulus of the composite were relatively higher in the presence of 2 phr nanoclay. The limiting oxygen index values showed self-extinguishing behavior of the WPC nnc . Furthermore, the storage moduli (E ′ ) and damping index (tan δ ) of these products were high. WPC SAN/GMA/nnc exhibit higher biodegradability compared to WPC SAN/GMA . Keywords: biodegradation; combustion; limiting oxygen index (LOI); mechanical properties; scanning electron

) analyzer (TG209, Netzsch, Germany) was used for thermal weight loss analysis; range: from ambient temperature to 760°C at a heating rate of 10°C min -1 ; N 2 protection. Combustion tests were performed (JF-3 OI instrument, Jiangning, Nanjing, China) based on the limiting oxygen index (LOI) principle according to GB/T2406-93 and ISO 4589. Details: O 2 and N 2 at 0.1 MPa; flow rate 10 ml min -1 ; flow rate of N 2 changed with the adjustment of O 2 . Results and discussion Surface element analysis by XPS The C 1s spectrum of wood can be fitted with the four peaks C1, C

-or) nanostructures were synthesized via a simple reaction be- tween CdCl2 2H2O and thioglycolic acid using water sol- vent at room temperature, then CdS-or nanostructures were added to Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) copoly- mer. The influence of inorganic phase on the thermal prop- erties of ABS matrix was studied using thermogravimetry analysis and limiting oxygen index (LOI). Nanostructures and nanocomposite materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform in- frared (FT

TA Instruments) under an air atmosphere. The samples were heated from 25 °C to 700 °C at a heating rate of 10 °C/min. For each thermogravimetric analysis, around 5 mg of sample was used. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) values of the samples were measured by the Oxygen Index Flammability Gauge (HC-2C) according to ASTM D 2863-97. The test samples were moulded to a size of 120 × 6.5 × 3.2 mm 3 . The UL-94 vertical measurement was performed on the vertical burning test instrument (CZF-2) according to the ASTM D 3801 testing procedure. The test samples were molded to a

selected as flame-retardant and their incorporation with PVC was investigated. The performances of the flame-retardants on PVC composites were determined in terms of Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI), heat stability, Vicat softening point, mechanical and thermal properties. The main novelty of this study is, not only a comprehensive look to a commercial PVC product from the results of the applied tests but also an understanding of the synergistic effects of binary and triple combinations of flame-retardants in composite containing different types of additives. In this study

Sb2S3 nanostructures on the thermal stability of the polymeric matrix has been examined. The thermal de- composition of the nanocomposite shifts towards higher temperature in the presence of the Sb2S3. Nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, thermo- gravimetric analysis (TGA), UL-94 and limiting oxygen index (LOI) analysis. Keywords: Sb2S3, ABS, thermal stability PACS® (2010). 82.35.Np Siyamak Bagheriyan: Department of Geology

foams were characterized for density, Izod impact strength, flexural strength, morphology and limiting oxygen index (LOI) properties. 2 Materials and methods 2.1 Materials Cardanol was obtained from CNSL by the decarboxylation process. Castor oil was obtained from Aastha Oil Company (Surat, Gujarat, India). Diethanolamine, p -formaldehyde (power 95%) was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Surat, Gujarat, India). Polymeric MDI (NCO=31.2%) was obtained from Dow Chemical (Germany) and Sigma-Aldrich (Belgium). The surfactant Tegostab B-8404 (China), to achieve superior cell

the ignition time of the second burning, t sec res means the after-flame time for the second burning, t res light means the after-glow time. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) values were obtained using a Stanton Redcroft instrument on sheets (100*10*3 mm 3 ) according to ASTM 2863. Tensile test of SR composites was conducted using a TCR-2000 instrument at room temperature with a crosshead speed of 500 mm/min. The samples were prepared in a standard dumbbell-shape. All measurements were repeated five times and a median value was obtained. PLM of SR composites was

PROPERTIES OF FLAME-RETARDING BLENDS OF POLYCARBONATE AND POLY(ACRYLONTTRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE) Hyun Chul Jung1, Woo Nyon Kim1*, Chang Ryong Lee2, Kwang S. Suh2 and Sung-Ryong Kim3 1 Department o f Chemical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoul 136-701, Korea departm ent o f Materials Science, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoul 136-701, Korea 3Sam YangR&D Center, 63-2 Hwaam-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Taejeon 305-348, Korea ABSTRACT Limiting oxygen index (LOI) value, glass transition temperature (T,), thermal degradation profile, morphology, and tensile

(UP-DI) was confirmed by infrared spectra (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With the increase of DI contents, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of the cured UP-DIs was raised from 19 to 29, suggesting a significant improvement in flame retardance. The improved flame retardance could also be revealed by the variations of weight and morphology of char residues. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) both in air and in nitrogen was used to estimate mechanism of thermal degradation and activation energy (Ea) of different degree of conversion (α) was