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“epistemic” – which above all medi- ate between student experience and pure abstraction, and invite students to think with and about tools and texts rather than blindly apply models. The rela- tionship of the tool with literary theory and the appropriate age for learning such a tool are also discussed. Keywords: modality; literary semantics; secondary education; thinking tool, thinking skill; literary and cultural analysis Daniel Candel: Universidad de Alcalá de Henares. E-mail: This article presents a tool of fictional analysis for secondary

From its beginning as an academic discipline in the post-WW II years, the study of American literature (Amerikanistik) tried to distinguish itself from approaches to the study of English literature (Anglistik) by the promise of a new methodology, conceptualized as a combination of literary and cultural analysis. In order to justify American Studies' institutionalization as a separate discipline, American literature had to be read as an expression of American society and culture, but this had to be done on the basis of a close reading of literary form as propagated by the New Criticism. In the first part, my essay describes the problems arising from this linkage of cultural and literary analysis, leading, in the end, to the increasingly implausible claim that the cultural insights of major American works reside in the very quality that distinguish them as literary texts according to the New Criticism, namely their organic unity. In the second part, this essay traces the consequences of a growing critique of new critical formalism and the foundational myths of American Exceptionalism that provided the basis for cultural readings of American literature. The claim that literary texts can and should best be understood as an expression of national character was submitted to a scathing critique by the new social movements and their insistence on the key role diversity plays in American culture. This has led to new theories of literary effect, a redefinition of the relation between reading and identity formation, and, more generally speaking, to a pluralization of interpretive approaches that have undermined any attempt to define methodological standards and norms of the field. In their place, ›powerful‹ rhetorical performances often remain the only criterion for distinguishing literary interpretations.

Explorations of Place and Belonging
The Rhetoric of Sexual Violence in American Literature and Culture, 1790-1990
The Amsterdam Hollandsche Schouwburg as a Site of Memory
Incest, Miscegenation, and Multiculturalism in the United States, 1880-1930
Gender and Deviance in Nineteenth Century Spain
An Idea and Its Uses