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[1] Ivanova TN, Iuvone PM. Melatonin synthesis in retina: circadian regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in cultured photoreceptor cells of embryonic chicken retina. Brain Res 2003; 973: 56–63 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(03)02540-X [2] do Carmo Buonfiglio D, Peliciari-Garcia RA, do Amaral FG et al. Early-stage retinal melatonin synthesis impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats. Invest Ophthalml Vis Sci 2011; 52: 7416–7422 http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.10-6756 [3] Konturek PC, Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ. Gut clock

Introduction Melatonin ( N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a hormone secreted from the pineal gland, was first isolated and characterized from the bovine pineal gland by physician and scientist Aaron Lerner in 1958 ( Lerner et al., 1958 ). The phenomenon of lightening of frog skin by contracting melanophores led to the naming of this molecule as melatonin ( Claustrat et al., 2005 ). Melatonin is additionally found in the plant kingdom, where it primarily reduces oxidative stress. The role of melatonin in controlling circadian rhythms is a well-established fact, and

Introduction Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common and second most lethal cancer [ 1 ]. In 2018, there were over 1.8 million new cases and 881,000 deaths, with about 1 in 10 in both cancer cases and number of deaths. The major treatment for CRC is chemotherapy. However, chemotherapy is always associated with unwanted side effects, such as hair loss, nausea, fatigue, vomiting and diarrhea [ 2 ], [ 3 ]. Melatonin, N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is an indoleamine produced by the pineal gland and it mainly regulates circadian rhythm and has antioxidant and

References 1. Kamenov Z, Orbetzova M, Gateva A. Polycystic ovary syndrome. Sofi a: IK ZIP Ltd; 2010:258 (Bulgarian). 2. Kolarov G, Orbetzova M. Polycystic ovary syndrome.Sofi a: IK Vyara; 2004:232 (Bulgarian). 3. Srinivasan V, Spence WD, Pandi-Perumal SR, et al. Melatonin and human reproduction: Shedding light on the darkness hormone. Gynecol Endocrinol 2009;25(12):779-85. 4. Macchi M, Bruce J. Human pineal physiology and functional signifi cance of melatonin. Frontiers Neuroendocrinol 2004;25:177-95. 5. Grigore C, Savulescu-Fiedler I. The neurohormone melatonin

References Banach M, Gurdzie E, Jedrych M, Borowicz KK. Melatonin in experimental seizures and epilepsy. Pharmacol Rep 63, 1-11, 2011. Benleulmi-Chaachoua A, Chen L, Sokolina K, Sokolina K, Wong V, Jurisca I, Emerit MB, Darmon M, Espin A, Stagljar I, Tafelmeyer P, Zamponi GW, Delagrange P, Maurice P, Jockers R. Protein interactome mining defines melatonin MT1 receptors as integral component of presynaptic protein complexes of neurons. J Pineal Res 60, 95-108, 2016. Binfare RW, Mantovani M, Budni J, Santos AR, Rodrigues AL. Involvement of dopamine receptors in the

]. Previous studies have associated the administration of Keto with the decreased weight of male reproductive organs [ 6 ], degeneration of Sertoli and germ cells, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and sloughing of germ cells [ 7 ]. Like Keto, melatonin ( N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) has anticancerous action [ 8 ], [ 9 ]. Recently, the hormone was reported to also have an antifungal action [ 10 ]. The protective effects of melatonin have been documented in testis damaged by chemotherapy [ 11 ], testicular torsion [ 12 ], and diabetes [ 13 ]. Melatonin’s action is primarily

References Abd-Allah AR, El-Sayed el SM, Abdel-Wahab MH, Hamada FM. (2003). Effect of melatonin on estrogen and progesterone receptors in relation to uterine contraction in rats. Pharmacol Res 47: 349-354. Adriaens I, Jacquet P, Cortvrindt R, Janssen K, Smitz J. (2006). Melatonin has dose-dependent effects on folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation capacity and steroidogenesis. Toxicology 228: 333-343. Barbieri RL, Sluss PM, Powers RD, McShane PM, Vitonis A, Ginsburg E, Cramer DC. (2005). Association of body mass index, age, and cigarette smoking with serum

References Abe T, Takngi N, Nagano M, Furuza M, Takeo S (2004). Altered Bad localization and interaction between Bad and Bcl-X L in the hippocampus after transient global ischemia. Brain Res   1009 : 159-168. Acuna-Castroviejo D, Coto-Montes A, Gaia Monti M, Ortiz GG, Reiter RJ (1997). Melatonin is protective against MPTP-induced striated and hippocampal lesions. Life Sci   60 , PL23-PL29. Acuna-Castroviejo D, Escames G, Carozo A, Leon J, Khaldy H, Reiter RJ (2002). Melatonin, mitochondrial homeostasis and mitochondrial-related diseases. Curr Top Med Chem   2

Notes 927 Melatonin in the Testis of the Cabbage Armyworm, Mamestra brassicae Toshiaki Shimizu* and Naokuni Takeda Laboratory of Applied Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183, Japan Department of Biomedical Science, COSMO Research Institute, Gongendo, Satte, Saitama, 340-01, Japan Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 927-931 (1998); received May 14/June 12, 1998 Melatonin, Mamestra brassicae, Testis, HPLC-ECD, Metabolic Pathways, Diapausing Pupae jV-Acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (melatonin; MEL) was detected in

Introduction Melatonin, an important neurohormone released from the pineal gland, is generally accepted to exercise an inhibitor effect on the thyroid gland. That melatonin supplementation significantly inhibited thyroid hormone concentrations in rats while pinealectomy disturbed the daily rhythm of triiodthyronine (T 3 ) and caused significant changes in thyroxine (T 4 ) levels over a 24-h period are remarkable findings that support the inhibitor effect of melatonin on thyroid hormones [ 1 ]. The effect of melatonin on thyroid functions is dose