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Abstract

Only two species of Polysiphonia sensu lato (predominately species of Polysiphonia and Neosiphonia) have been reported from Caribbean Panama. In contrast, 16 species are documented from the neighboring countries of Costa Rica and Colombia. Molecular-assisted identification using plastid-encoded ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit gene (rbcL) and mitochondria-encoded cytochrome coxidase subunit I gene (COI) loci identified 14 species from 38 samples collected along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Morphological character states were examined and used to identify each sample, and phylogenetic relationships among these species were estimated through maximum likelihood analyses of rbcL and nuclear-encoded SSU sequence data. Neosiphonia ferulaceae, N. tongatensis, Polysiphonia binneyi, P. havanensis, P. macrocarpa, P. pseudovillum, P. schneideri, P. subtilissima, and two species that could only be identified as P. cf. sertularioides are reported for the first time from Panama. Polysiphonia pentamera, a species only known from the eastern Pacific is reported for the first time in the Caribbean, and two new species, P. lobophoralis and P. nuda are described. A key to Caribbean Panama species, descriptions of species morphology and remarks on taxonomy and relationships are provided. These findings demonstrate that previous limited reports of Polysiphonia sensu lato species from Panama resulted from a lack of study, rather than a lack of diversity, within the region.

Botanica Marina 54 (2011): 269–292 2011 by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • Boston. DOI 10.1515/BOT.2011.036 2010/101 Article in press - uncorrected proof Taxonomic notes on Caribbean Neosiphonia and Polysiphonia (Ceramiales, Florideophyceae): five species from Florida, USA and Mexico Nadya R. Mamoozadeh and D. Wilson Freshwater* Center for Marine Science, UNCW, 5600 Marvin Moss Lane, Wilmington, NC 28409, USA, e-mail: freshwaterw@uncw.edu * Corresponding author Abstract Molecular-assisted identification using plastid-encoded rbcL and mitochondrion-encoded COI loci

coast Molecular-assisted identification was used and COI-5P sequences were generated for P. tripinnata and similar species from the Southern Atlantic Europe . Materials and methods Collections and morphological studies An extensive collection of seaweeds was made at approxi- mately 100 sites along the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula between 2003 and 2012. Sampling was made at sand- covered rocks in the intertidal and upper subtidal zones. Samples were preserved in 4 % formalin in seawater at 4 ° C and stored in the dark. Voucher specimens were depos- ited in

analysis of plastid rbc L nucleotide sequences J. Phycol. 31 616 632 https://doi.org/1010.1111/j.1529-8817.1995.tb02558.x Freshwater, D.W., Idol, J.N., Parham, S.L., Fernández-García, C., León, N., Gabrielson, P.W.and Wysor, B.L. (2017). Molecular assisted identification reveals hidden red algae diversity from the Burica Peninsula, Pacific Panama. Diversity 9: 19, https://doi.org/1010.3390/d9020019 . 10.3390/d9020019 Freshwater D.W. Idol J.N. Parham S.L. Fernández-García C. León N. Gabrielson P.W. Wysor B.L. 2017 Molecular assisted identification reveals hidden red

(1993), Díaz-Tapia (2013) Afonso-Carrillo and Rojas-González (2004) Mamoozadeh and Freshwater (2012) Kim et al. (1994) Womersley (2003) Maggs and Hommersand (1993) Nam and Kang (2012), Bustamante et al. (2014) Molecular-assisted identification through the use of the plastid-encoded rbc L has proven useful for discriminating species of Polysiphonia sensu lato (Mamoozadeh and Freshwater 2011). Our molecular phylogenetic analyses using rbc L gene sequences reveal that P. dokdoensis is firmly embedded within Polysiphonia sensu stricto . Although P. dokdoensis sp

results of DNA barcoding in the Gelidiales (Freshwater et al. 2010). Their results indicate that the COI marker is useful for molecular-assisted identification, especially in the case of closely related species when the more conserved rbc L may be uninformative (Freshwater et al. 2010). Similar problems of identification are also apparent in several macroalgal species. Nemalion helminthoides , which was thought to be a cosmopolitan species, was actually divided into five distinct genetic lineages by biogeographic distribution patterns (Le Gall and Saunders 2010b

’Shaughnessy and B. Wysor. 2010. DNA barcoding in the red algal order Gelidiales: comparison of COI with rbc L and verification of the “barcoding gap.” Cryptogamie Algol. 31 : 435–449. Freshwater D.W. Tudor K. O’Shaughnessy K. Wysor B. 2010 DNA barcoding in the red algal order Gelidiales: comparison of COI with rbc L and verification of the “barcoding gap.” Cryptogamie Algol. 31 435 449 Freshwater, D.W., J.N. Idol, S.L. Parham, C. Fernández-García, N. León, P.W. Gabrielson and B. Wysor. 2017. Molecular assisted identification reveals hidden red algae diversity from the Burica

. Wysor. 2017. Molecular assisted identification reveals hidden red algae diversity from the Burica Peninsula, Pacific Panama. Diversity 9 : 19. 10.3390/d9020019 Freshwater D. Idol J. Parham S. Fernández-García C. León N. Gabrielson P. Wysor B. 2017 Molecular assisted identification reveals hidden red algae diversity from the Burica Peninsula, Pacific Panama Diversity 9 19 Furnari, G., G. Giaccone, M. Cormaci, G. Alongi and D. Serio. 2003. Marine Biodiversity of the Italian Coast: Catalogue of the Macrophytobenthos. Biol. Mar. Mediterr. 10 : 3–482. Furnari G. Giaccone