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Review of Network Economics Vol.7, Issue 4 – December 2008 460 Natural Experiments in U.S. Broadband Regulation THOMAS W. HAZLETT * Director, Information Economy Project, George Mason University ANIL CALISKAN Information Economy Project, George Mason University Abstract Regulations governing broadband networks are being considered. Natural experiments conducted with respect to “open access” rules yield probative marketplace evidence. Using the metric of

may exacerbate agency problems and reduce agent incentives to work ( Scharfstein 1988 ; Hermalin 1992 ; Martin 1993 ; Schmidt 1997 ). Closure threats may also induce agents to take excessive risks and engage in value-destroying activities (e. g., poor investments: Stiglitz and Weiss 1981 ; Johnson et al. 2000 ; Eisdorfer 2008 ) or unethical behavior (e. g., corruption: Shleifer 2004 ). In this study, we exploit a natural experiment to examine the effect of introducing the threat of school closures into an already competitive environment. Most Hong Kong

I n c e s t A v o I d A n c e A n d t h e I n c e s t t A b o o s34 15. three natural experiments The history of the Westermarck hypothesis seems to say that a hypothesis about an important aspect of human behavior rose and fell as divergent conceptions of the relationship between man and society waxed and waned. What saves us from this dispiriting con- clusion is the fact that this happened in what amounted to an evi- dential vacuum. Freud’s evidence was limited to suspect inferences about the behavior of a few neurotic patients, and Westermarck’s was

The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy Topics Volume 11, Issue 1 2011 Article 30 Men in Transit and Prostitution: Using Political Conventions as a Natural Experiment Scott Cunningham∗ Todd D. Kendall† ∗Baylor University, †Compass Lexecon, Recommended Citation Scott Cunningham and Todd D. Kendall (2011) “Men in Transit and Prostitution: Using Political Conventions as a Natural Experiment,” The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy: Vol. 11: Iss. 1 (Topics), Article 30. Men in Transit and Prostitution

. 2012 ; Deutscher et al. 2013 ; Garicano/Palacios-Huerta 2014 ; Corral et al. 2010 ). Finally, teams lagging behind might benefit from increased risk-taking at final stages of the tournament as they have “nothing to lose” ( Anderson/Cabral 2007 ; Cabral 2003 ; Hvide 2002 ). In this paper we take advantage of a unique natural experiment with 1,146 observations spanning from 1955 to 2009 where highly paid professionals have strong incentives to compete and know the setting very well. In two-game soccer knock-out competitions, teams are randomly drawn to have an

natural experiments are used as another approach to try to establish causality. A number of studies compare non-blind course grades with blind (or external) exam grades (e. g. Burgess and Greaves 2013 ; Cornwell, Mustard, and Van Parys 2013 ; Falch and Naper 2013 ; Rangvid 2015 ) and generally find that educationally disadvantaged groups (boys and immigrants) get worse grades from their teachers for their course work (compared to girls and natives) than the grades they receive in externally scored exams. Other studies have examined grading bias by comparing scores

concerns about representativeness are warranted in practice. Our paper is also related to a broader literature about the role of firms in explaining wage inequality and the contrasting outlooks across countries, possibly depending on their evolving collective bargaining models ( Card et al., 2013 ; Devicienti et al., 2019 ). The analysis is based on a natural experiment that resulted from the immediate suspension of extensions by the new government in Portugal that took office in June 2011. We employ a regression discontinuity design (RDD) that exploits the standard

Volume 7, Issue 2 2009 Article 2 The Forum Institutional Structure and Democratic Values: A Research Note on a Natural Experiment Byron Shafer, University of Wisconsin - Madison Amber Wichowsky, University of Wisconsin - Madison Recommended Citation: Shafer, Byron and Wichowsky, Amber (2009) "Institutional Structure and Democratic Values: A Research Note on a Natural Experiment," The Forum: Vol. 7: Iss. 2, Article 2. DOI: 10.2202/1540-8884.1311 Institutional Structure and Democratic Values: A Research Note on a Natural Experiment Byron Shafer and Amber Wichowsky

Turning the Switch: An Evaluation of the Minimum Wage in the German Electrical Trade Using Repeated Natural Experiments Bernhard Boockmann, Raimund Krumm and Pia Rattenhuber Institute for Applied Economic Research (Institut f€ur Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung, IAW) Michael Neumann German Institute for Economic Research (Deutsches Institut f€ur Wirtschaftsforschung, DIW) Abstract. The introduction, abolition and subsequent re-introduction of the minimum wage in the German electrical trade gave rise to series of natural experiments, which are used to study minimum

C H A P T E R   3 Urban Land Titling: Lessons from a Natural Experiment Sebastian Galiani and Ernesto Schargrodsky Th e literature on economic growth has traditionally focused on capital ac- cumulation and technological change in an institution- free world with per- fect property rights. However, the new institutional approach to development economies (see, among others, North 1990), building on the pathbreaking work of Ronald Coase (1960), has recognized that creating, specifying, and enforcing property rights is costly, and, hence, they will never be perfect

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