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), pp. 231-242. McKee, DL & Tisdell, CA 1990, Developmental issues in small island economies, Praeger, New York. Mowforth, M & Munt, I., 2003, Tourism and sustainability: development and New tourism in the Third World, (2nd edition), Routledge, London. Nandy, A 1983, The Intimate Enemy: Loss and Recovery of Self Under Colonialism, Oxford University Press, Dehli. Nash, D 1989, ‘Tourism as a form of imperialism’ (In) Hosts and guests: The anthropology of tourism. (2nd edition). V. Smith, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. Nkrumah, K 1965, Neo-Colonialism

War, Spain began to liberalize colonial commercial pol- icy by stimulating local production for export. By the time the famed Manila Galleon trade between Acapulco and Manila ceased in 1815 (when Mexico—Spain’s most valuable colonial possession—won its independence), export crops had supplanted entrepôt trading in eco- nomic importance. The Spanish government granted foreign firms 32 The Legacy of Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism 2 residence rights in 1814, against the militant opposition of the reli- gious orders who denounced foreign merchants as “Protestants

Cultural Perspectives


The term “neo-colonialism” is attributed to Kwame Nkrumah, who considers it to be the last stage of imperialism and means “the exercise of power but not of responsibility by the powerful exploiters without alternatives for the dominated”. An introspection at the level of the specialized literature allows to find that there are many definitions of this concept, being able to speak even about a series of regional versions of the term (African, Asian or Latin American). Research by many analysts has revealed the deep vulnerabilities of the state of fact that can be categorized as a neo-colonial type. In this paper we start from the hypothesis that the states of Central Asia are in a unique situation because it is not possible to speak of complete independence if most of their resources are still used in the interest and development of those who are in the vicinity of the region or at distances greater than this. Throughout this paper, sustainable arguments are made in support of the idea that some factual states attributable to neocolonialism can be attached to the relations that Russia has today with the former components of the USSR that have declared their autonomy and are developing as independently as possible. The analysis is focused on aspects such as: the great difficulties encountered by the states in this region during the processes of capital accumulation, endowment with modern technologies and the approximation of the most sustainable managerial practices; the almost complete repatriation of the profits obtained by the foreign investors in these regions which are so deprived of important own sources of financing, determining them to remain dependent on the foreign investors and vulnerable to the seismic or asymmetric economic shocks; the special sensitivity of the external debt vector used with great ability by both international financial institutions and the commercial banking system in developed countries to radically influence macroeconomic and sectoral policy decisions; the continued use of these states as a field of confrontation between the great powers.

- nialization, civil society, neo-colonialism, U.N. Declaration on Indigenous Peoples, World Bank, UN Volunteers, Millennium Development Goals, GDP, Rio Declaration ∗David Lempert, Ph.D., J.D., M.B.A., E.D. (Hon) has worked for more than 25 years in devel- opment. Professor Lempert is author of several books including, A Model Development Plan and Daily Life in a Crumbling Empire: The Absorption of Russia into the World Economy (2 vol- umes). He is an anthropologist, lawyer, and educator who has worked in more than 30 countries for the UNDP, UNICEF, World Bank, USAID, EC, WWF


The above-mentioned authors offer a challenging and revealing study of the enjoyments and drawbacks of female sex tourism. I examine the interactions between white female tourists and local black men from the context of post-colonialism, asking whether these encounters can be considered a “fair trade” or whether they are the neo-colonising of people in this ex-slave society.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 POSTCOLONIALISM AND THE POLITICS OF SPACE: TOWARDS A POSTCOLONIAL ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL SPATIAL PRACTICES Abstract: This article calls for a new orientation in postcolonial studies to the spatial material conditions of colonization, anti-colonialism and neo-colonialism In this article I contend that the focus upon problems of epistemology which gave postcolonial studies its intellectual strength, by displacing the older modes of at- tention

” histories. Likewise, the story of the Soviet Union’s dissolution, and the subsequent reforms in its aftermath, largely avoid the radar of critical colonial discourses. In short, there is almost no effort to link the fSU to the 19th century colonial project of Western European states, in particular the story of informal empire. This article seeks to re-frame the post-communist transition debate in terms of the broader international challenges of decolonization, “neo-colonialism,” and informal empire building in the West, the former Soviet Union, as well as between the two

of instruction and, in this process, perpetuate linguistic imperialism and neo-colonialism (Phillipson 1992; Reagan and Schreffler 2005). This paper analyzes the responses of a sample university student population from Kenya and South Africa to linguistic diversity and lan- guage-in-education practices, on the one hand, and to the imperatives of the glo- balization and market value of English, on the other. The analysis of the interview data, complemented by ethnographic observations and group discussions, shows that the students prefer English

Continuity, Change and Transformation