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Valentina Vapnarsky (Paris) Is Yucatec Maya an omnipredicative language? Predication, the copula and focus constructions* Abstract In this article, we examine the omnipredicativity hypothesis (Launey 1994, 2004) in the context of Yucatec Maya.The hypothesis implies three requirements: 1) most words are predicative, 2) the focus of a sentence is its main predicate, 3) arguments are subordinate predicates of the main predicate. Based on the analysis of the personal indexation patterns, morphosyntactic and semantic properties of non-verbal predicates, the use of

Sprachtypol. Univ. Forsch. (STUF) 57 (2004) 1,49-69 MICHEL LAUNEY (Cayenne/Paris) The features of omnipredicativity in Classical Nahuatl Abstract Classical Nahuatl displays a bundle of morphosyntactic features which together form what the author suggests to call the omnipredicative type. In this type, the syntactic hub of the sentence is its informative part (call it comment, focus or rheme according to the terminological tradition), be it a verb, a noun or any kind of word. Although they behave similarly from a syntactic point of view, the different

") arrived at a late stage of Mesoamerica's prehispanic history. Whatever the truth is, what is worthwhile stressing is the trans-disciplinary tradition advanced by these studies, in which typological analysis constitutes an outstanding piece of evidence to reconstruct the previously uninvestigated sociolinguistic pre-history of Mesoamerica. From a holistic typological approach, LAUNEY'S article on omnipredicativity provides an overview of Nahuatl characteristics that posits it as the prototype of an omnipredicative language. Advancing the omnipredicative approach

282 Sprachtypol. Univ. Forsch. (STUF), Berlin 50 (1997) 3,282-284 Rezension M I C H E L LAUNEY, Une grammaire omnipredicative. Essai sur la morphosynlaxe du nahuatl classique, (Collection Sciences du Langage), Paris: CNRS Editions, 1994.302 pp. Eine der interessantesten sprachwissenschaftlichen Monographien der letzten Jahre liegt nun mit M I C H E L L A U N E Y S informativer und sachkundiger Studie über die Prädikation im klassischen Azteki- schen vor. In dieser detailreichen Arbeit nimmt der Autor Morphologie und Syntax der kolonialzeitli- chen

clefted focus part as a main predicate and an extrafocal part as a headless relative clause (Bricker 1979, Bohnemeyer 1998, Tonhauser 2003, 2007). This construc- tion is also discussed in the contribution by Vapnarsky to this volume which reviews evidence from focus constructions for an omnipredicativity analysis for Yucatec Maya to be introduced below. These are just a few of the many interesting issues of Yucatec gram- mar which deserve more and deeper investigation in future studies. This special issue is meant to be a contribution to the ongoing research and debates

uncommon, but this language does have incorporation, as we will see later. And it is a strictly head-marking lan- guage, without case (i.e. not dependent-marking), so it fits Baker's definition pretty well. In this paper, however, I focus on another major feature of Nahuatl morphosyntax, which I will call omnipredicativity; this reinforces the head-marking parameter and leads to interesting conclusions about the status of NPs, and about the parallelism between incorporation and compound nouns. Before going into the latter issue, I will explain briefly what I mean by


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Valentina Vapnarsky Is Yucatec Maya an omnipredicative language? Predication, the copula and focus constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Elisabeth Verhoeven Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Anton Zimmerling & Peter Kosta Slavic clitics: a typology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Reviews Paulette Levy & David Beck (eds.), Las lenguas totonacas y tepe huas.Textos y otros materiales para su studio, (Estudios sobre Lenguas Americanas 5), México, D

classifiers: a lexical means to a gram- matical end 247-279 GRUZDEVA, EKATERINA: Classifiers in Nivkh 3 0 0 - 3 2 9 H I L L , JANE H . & H I L L , KENNETH C . : Word order type change and the penetration of Spanish de in modern Nahuatl 23-48 LAUNEY, MICHEL: The features of omnipredicativity in Classical Nahuatl 4 9 - 6 9 LEVY, PAULETTE: Parts in Papantla Totonac and the genesis of systems of numeral classification . . . 2 8 0 - 2 9 9 M A L O N E , TERRY: Classifiers in Chimila (Chibchan) 1 4 4 - 2 0 1 M E N Z E L , THOMAS: On the relationship between first language

flexibility of the function of predication is shown to be very high. This phenomenon, sometimes referred to as omnipredicativity , is attested not only in the Oceanic family, but also in several Amerindian languages. The term “omnipredicative” was coined by Launey (1994 , 2004 ). For examples of individual omnipredicative Amerindian languages see, e.g., Beck (2013) on Lushootseed; Vapnarsky (2013) on Yucatec Mayan; Haude (2009 ) on Movima. See Evans & Osada (2005) for a discussion of omnipredicativity in the larger context of lexical flexibility. The present study

& Schultze-Berndt’s (2005) defini- tion of depictives, as for example instances of status constructus or converbs. In rounding off the general survey chapters, we turn to the contributions on Classical Aztec by Thomas Stolz (pp. 359–380) and on the West Cau- casian language Adyghe by Arseniy Vydrin (pp. 423–445). Stolz and Vydrin explore whether these languages at all employ secondary predication (Clas- sical Aztec) or, more specifically, depictives (Adyghe). Stolz takes up Launey’s (e.g., 1994, 2004) omnipredicativity analysis for Classical Aztec, from which Book Reviews