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Parental Rights and Employment Flexibility in Sweden Elisabet Näsman and Eva Falkenberg Introduction Parents in the Swedish Labour Force In Sweden labour force participation is comparatively very high. The proportion of women in the labour force has been growing throughout the post-war era, thereby increasing the number of gainfully employed people and altering the composition of the labour force. Women now constitute just under half of the labour force compared to one-third in 1960. The unemployment rate is low and the number of housewives has fallen

3 Getting and Losing Parental Rights: The “Baby Jessica” Case She went to bed on the evening of August 1, 1993 almost totally oblivious to the turmoil surrounding her in her own home and in the community around it. Three-year-olds rarely know much about the details of the con- flicts the adults upon whom they depend for subsistence are experiencing. Jessica was completely unaware that she had been the subject of count- less headlines in newspapers throughout the United States and featured in major magazines.1 She knew something was not right at home; her mother

6 Child Protection, Foster Care, and Termination of Parental Rights A man visits a small village late one evening. He notices a lot of activity on the street when he enters the town, but he is very tired from a long jour- ney and takes a room in the only hotel. The next morning after breakfast he leaves the hotel and sees the same activity. He goes over to the scores of people working furiously near the stream that runs through the town. The townspeople are taking babies out of the stream as they pass by. They form a sort of assembly line with those at the front

Parental Rights and Employment Flexibility in the Netherlands Helen M. Hootsmans Introduction Distribution of Labour Force by Gender and Occupation While the participation of women aged 15 to 65 in the labour market in the Netherlands has increased from 32.2 per cent in 1981 to 35.2 per cent in 1985, women are still to be found in a small number of occupations and are noticeably underrepresented at higher levels of employment. In 1982 the Central Bureau of Statistics classified 83 professions, with three- quarters of the women working in nine professions Vol 3 3/2009, 232 CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS IN AUSTRIA Valerie Leskovar Parental Rights and religious freedom in education considering the case-law of the ECtHR The parents' right to have their children educated in accordance with their religious and philosophical convictions is laid down in the second sentence of Article 2 of Protocol No. 1 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), which reads: "In the exercise of any functions which it assumes in relation to education and to teaching, the State shall

23 Maulana Thanawi’s Fatwa on the Limits of Parental Rights over Children Fareeha Khan A common theme in Islamic thought on family relations has been the obligation to take care of, and to obey, one’s parents, an aspect of religiously oriented social practice that can in no way be rightly ignored. Indeed, disobedience to one’s par- ents is considered to be one of the most serious of enormities. Muslims from the subcontinent, like South Asians generally, give shape to filial piety by a cultural preference for the extended family over the nuclear. Given this

Six Assessing Arguments for School Choice: Pluralism, Parental Rights, or Educational Results? A M Y G U T M A N N MANY AMERICANS who are products of our school system cannot understand simple jury instructions or summarize basic informa- tion about schools from a simple chart. Nor can they fill out a job appli- cation or understand a train schedule. Yet a central part of the histor- ic mission of a democratically accredited school system is to educate citizens who are capable of sitting on juries, assessing public proposals (about schools, for example

. During our discussion of each reform movement, we provide examples of how each one specifically affected school choice options in Canada. In the second section, we provide a comprehensive overview of the 4 Evolution of School Choice in Canada and the Rise of Parental Rights and Freedoms Evolution of School Choice in Canada 71 contemporary Canadian school choice landscape. We note provisions for homeschooling, alternative schools, charter schools, and private schools, as well as the introduction of intra-district open enrolment. We discuss the benefits of

1 Introduction Contemporary theories of children’s rights often borrow the language of trusts from common law jurisprudence, referring to parents as ‘trustees’ or ‘fiduciaries’ in connection with their parental rights and responsibilities. It has elsewhere been remarked that the ‘idea of a trust is so familiar to us all that we never wonder at it. And yet surely we ought to wonder’ ( Maitland 1911 , p. 272). What I call the trust model of upbringing, in which adults exercise stewardship over children as fiduciaries of one kind or another, has been advanced by

1 Introduction Reproduction and the rearing of children, and the moral rights and obligations of those involved, are subjects to which philosophers have devoted significant intellectual energy. In particular, they have inquired into the scope of parental rights and obligations and the means by which they are acquired. In this area of applied philosophy, parents are generally taken to have obligations to care for, raise, and nurture a child within a particular kind of intimate relationship ( Brake 2010 , p. 161; Weinberg 2008 , p. 167). Parental rights, on the