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1 Introduction This study proposes and illustrates bilingual law drafting techniques that aim to improve the readability and comprehensibility of Hong Kong bilingual legislation. It is conducted on the basis of the plain language guide published by the Department of Justice (DOJ) in 2012, with the objective of helping the current legislation to comply with the guidelines. The discussion will also evaluate the plain language drafting and the overall theoretical and philosophical trend of law drafting in Hong Kong. The findings, which concern three main areas of

References Assy, R. 2011. Can the law speak directly to its subjects? The limitation of plain language. Journal of Law and Society, Number 3, September . Consumer Rights Act of May 30, 2014, (Journal of Laws 2014, No 827) Cutts, M. 1993. Unspeakable Acts . Clarifying the language and typography of an Act of Parliament. Discussion Paper, January 1993. Cutts, M. 2000. Lucid Law . Additional research by Monica Sowash, Plain Language Commission. Cutts, M. 2001. Clarifying Eurolaw How European Community directives could be written more clearly so that citizens of

References Adler, Mark. 2012. The Plain Language Movement. In: Tiersma, Peter M. –Solan, Lawrence, M. (eds), The Oxford handbook of language and law. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 67–83. Bernstein, Basil. 1971. Class, codes and control: Volume 1 – Theoretical studies towards a sociology of language. London–New York: Routledge–Kegan Paul Ltd. Bhatia, Vijay K. 2010. Legal writing: Specificity. Specification in legislative writing: Accessibility, transparency, power and control. In: Johnson, Alison–Coulthard, Malcolm (eds), The Routledge handbook of forensic

1 Introduction This paper describes an experiment dealing with the manipulation of style in consecutive interpreting in the context of the law. In it, several groups of Spanish law undergraduates assessed two performances by a consecutive interpreter. The interpreter in both performances translated a German-language lecture on constitutional law into Spanish, the only difference between the two renditions being the style used in the target language — in one of them, plain language; in the other, a style reminiscent of complex traditional legal drafting. The

that the verbal communication of pain does not have its own drawbacks, principally due to the lack of a common pain code. As a result, doctors and patients tend to speak their own languages of pain. On the one hand, doctors make a frequent use of medicalese , which is often unintelligible to their patients, rather than exploiting patient-friendly terms. On the other, patients resort to plain language as “only our ordinary language can serve the purpose of publicly expressing and legitimising pain” ( Lascaratou 2007 : 22). In turn, plain language poses its own

Abstract

Bad writing can affect individuals and companies alike. It can cause confusion and misunderstanding, waste important resources of time and money, erode credibility and trust. On the other hand, clear writing will increase productivity, promote goodwill, and cement relations. This article discusses some of the most common problems encountered in business writing, together with their causes and the solutions proposed in the literature. Using too many words, an abstract vocabulary, and passive constructions will obscure the message and tire the reader. Conversely, the elimination of clutter, the use of plain words and personal pronouns, and the construction of sentences with clear subjects and verbs will convey the message clearly and effectively and will make your writing stand out.

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present LEX.CH.IT, a corpus for micro-diachronic linguistic investigations of Swiss normative acts in Italian. Italian has a peculiar position as an official minority translation language within the Swiss institutional system. Until now, few studies have focused on Swiss legal Italian, but the academic interest has been growing over the last two decades. In order to further expand on research in this field, resources such as corpora are fundamental. This is why LEX.CH.IT has been compiled. This corpus was originally created in the context of a doctoral research project, which will be briefly outlined in this paper. The main goals of the project are to determine whether clarity is a feature of Swiss legislation in Italian, whether there have been relevant evolutions over the last five decades and to assess the role of translation for a clear legislation. In the future, LEX.CH.IT could also be useful for a number of other projects aiming to shed light on the features of this language variety.

Zusammenfassung

Wie wünschenswert es sein kann, biblische Stoffe in Leichter Sprache zu formulieren, ist umstritten. Mit der Forderung der Vereinten Nationen nach Inklusion gehen didaktischerseits das Engagement und die Suche nach einer sog. „Leichten Sprache“ einher, die Menschen mit Beeinträchtigung oder geringerer sprachlicher Kompetenz einen besseren Zugang zu den biblischen Inhalten ermöglichen soll. Den Befürwortern stehen aber auch Skeptiker gegenüber. Vor diesem Hintergrund stellt unser Beitrag Grundzüge Leichter Sprache vor, diskutiert die Umsetzung anhand des Gleichnisses vom Barmherzigen Samariter und leitet daraus Leitlinien für eine gelingende Praxis ab.

-334. Rome: American Bible Society. Gotti, Maurizio, M. Dossena, R. Dury, R. Facchinetti and M. Lima. 2002. Variation in Central Modals. A Repertoire of Forms and Types of Usage in Middle English and Early Modern English . Bern: Peter Lang. Gotti, Maurizio. 2003. Shall and will in contemporary English: a comparison with past uses. In: R. Facchinetti, M. Krug and F. Palmer (eds.) Modality in contemporary English pp. 267-300. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Kimble, Joseph. 2000. The Great Myth that Plain Language is not Precise. The Scribes Journal of Legal Writing 1998

the United States, the Plain Legal English Campaign started at the end of the 1970s (with David Mellinkoff’s The Language of the Law ) and has resulted in an array of academic and professional books, articles and guides on how to draft documents in plain English. There are two major associations at the global level that focus on plain language initiatives: Clarity International, http://www.clarity-international.net/ . which is primarily concerned with the expression of law, and Plain, The Centre for Plain Language is a United States-based non-profit organization