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1 Introduction The optimal power flow (OPF) problem, which was introduced in 1960s, is an important and powerful tool for power system operation and planning [ 1 ]. Conventionally, this strategy determines controllable variables, such as transformers’ tap setting, shunt capacitors/reactors output, reactive power output of generators, and static reactive power compensators, while minimizes transmission losses or other suitable objective functions, satisfying a given set of physical and operational constraints [ 2 , 3 ]. Since the transformers’ tap position and

1 Introduction 1.1 Background Growth in emerging markets is one of the ultimate challenges for telecom operators and vendors as more and more networks are being rolled out in semi-urban and rural areas of developing countries. Hybrid power systems play an important role in radio base station (RBS) power supply in these areas with unreliable utility grids or without utility grids. The technologies regarding hybrid power systems mainly include system design, system control/dispatch, a power conditioning platform and various technologies of power generation, storage

Volume 2, Issue 1 2005 Article 1021 International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems Optimization Methods for Electric Power Systems: An Overview R. C. Bansal Dr., Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani Recommended Citation: Bansal, R. C. Dr. (2005) "Optimization Methods for Electric Power Systems: An Overview," International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems: Vol. 2: Iss. 1, Article 1021. DOI: 10.2202/1553-779X.1021 ©2005 by the authors. All rights reserved. Optimization Methods for Electric Power Systems: An Overview R. C. Bansal Dr

[1] Kundur P., Power System Stability and Control, McGraw-Hill, Inc., California, 1994 [2] Li G.J., Lie T.T., Shrestha G.B., Lo K.L., Design and application of co-ordinated multiple FACTS Controllers, IEE Proc. Generat. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 147, No 2, Mar. 2000, 112–120 [3] Mithulananthan N., Canizares C.A., Reeve J., et al., Comparison of PSS, SVC, and STATCOM controllers for damping power system oscillations, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., Vol. 18, No 2, May 2003, 786–792 [4

References QUI, B.—GOOI, H. B.: Web Based SCADA Display System for Access via Internet, IEEE Transactions on Power System 15 No. 2 (2000). CHEN, S.—LIU, F. Y.: Web Based Simulations of Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on Computer Applications in Power 15 No. 1 (2002), 35-40. NITHIYANATAN, K.—RAMACHANDRAN, V.: RMI Based Multi-Area Power System Load Flow Monitoring, IJECE 3 No. 1 (2004), 28-30. IRVING, M,—TAYLOR, GARETH—HOBSON, P.: Plug in to Grid Computing, IEEE Trans. on Power and Energy Magazine 2 No. 2 (2004), 40-44. HASAN DAG—UMAT UTKAN: An XML based

. Popchev. New Generalized Upper Trace Bound for the Solution of the Lyapunov Equation. - International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 49 , 2008, No 3, 381-389. 5. Savov, S., I. Popchev. New Upper Estimates for the Solution of the Continuous Algebraic Lyapunov Equation. - IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 49 , 2004, No 10, 1841-1842. 6. Shayeghi, H., H. Shayanfar. Automatic Generation Control of Interconnected Power Systems Using ANN Technique Based on μ -Analysis. - Journal of Electrical Engineering,Vol. 55 , 2004, No 11-12, 306-313. 7

References Z. Krishans, A. Mutule; Y. Merkuriev; I. Oleinikova. Dynamic Management of Sustainable Development . Germany: Springer, 2011, pp. 5-6, 52-60. Z. Krishans, A. Mutule; Y. Merkuriev; I. Oleinikova. 10 th International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems. Symposium Proceedings [CD]. Puerto Rico: Rincón. 2008 May 25-29. ENTSO-E network online transmission capacity database . [Online]. Available: International energy agency. Projected costs of generating electricity . 2010, pp. 60-70.

Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 52, 2007, No 7, pp. 1334-1340. 7. Kakilli, A., Y. Oguz, H. Calik. The Modelling of Electric Power Systems on the State Space and Controlling of Optimal LQR Load-Frequency. - Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 9, 2009, No 2, pp. 977-982. 8. Saadat, H. Power System Analysis. New York, McGraw Hill, 1999. 9. Savov, S. Solution Bounds for Algebraic Equations in Control Theory. Sofia, Prof. M. Drinov Academic Publishing House, 2014.