1 Introduction The optimal power flow (OPF) problem, which was introduced in 1960s, is an important and powerful tool for powersystem operation and planning [ 1 ]. Conventionally, this strategy determines controllable variables, such as transformers’ tap setting, shunt capacitors/reactors output, reactive power output of generators, and static reactive power compensators, while minimizes transmission losses or other suitable objective functions, satisfying a given set of physical and operational constraints [ 2 , 3 ]. Since the transformers’ tap position and
1 Introduction 1.1 Background Growth in emerging markets is one of the ultimate challenges for telecom operators and vendors as more and more networks are being rolled out in semi-urban and rural areas of developing countries. Hybrid powersystems play an important role in radio base station (RBS) power supply in these areas with unreliable utility grids or without utility grids. The technologies regarding hybrid powersystems mainly include system design, system control/dispatch, a power conditioning platform and various technologies of power generation, storage
 Kundur P., PowerSystem Stability and Control, McGraw-Hill, Inc., California, 1994  Li G.J., Lie T.T., Shrestha G.B., Lo K.L., Design and application of co-ordinated multiple FACTS Controllers, IEE Proc. Generat. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 147, No 2, Mar. 2000, 112–120 http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/ip-gtd:20000244  Mithulananthan N., Canizares C.A., Reeve J., et al., Comparison of PSS, SVC, and STATCOM controllers for damping powersystem oscillations, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., Vol. 18, No 2, May 2003, 786–792 http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2003.811181 [4
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