Introduction In 2013 in the United States (US), there were more than a quarter of a million births to mothers 19 years and younger [ 1 ]. Young maternal age is associated with a number of adverse birth outcomes including pretermbirth (PTB) [ 2 ], [ 3 ], [ 4 ], [ 5 ], [ 6 ], [ 7 ]. Assessing the effect of young age on PTB is complex owing to the convergence of various risk factors. In the US, teen pregnancy is characterized by low socio-economic status (SES) [ 8 ], minority race/ethnicity [ 9 ] and inadequate prenatal care [ 10 ], all of which have been
References 1. Beck S, Wojdyla D, Say L, Betrain AP, Merialdi M, Requejo JH. The worldwide incidence of pretermbirth: a systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2010;88(1):31-8. 2. Office for National Statistics. Child mortality in England and Wales: 2016. Stillbirths, infant and childhood deaths occurring annually in England and Wales, and associated risk factors. Statistical Buletin [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2019 Jan 04]. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/ . 3. Liu L, Oza S, Hogan D, Chu Y, Perin J
Introduction Almost 15 million children are born prematurely in the world each year. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines pretermbirth (PTB) as being born alive before 37 weeks of pregnancy are completed. Complications of PTB are the leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years of age globally, accounting for approximately 16% of all deaths, and 35% of deaths among newborn babies. Premature birth occurs in 5–18% of pregnancies and its complications result in the leading cause of neonatal death, and the second cause of childhood death below the
References 1 Amsel R, PA Totten, CA Spiegel, KC Chen, D Eschenbach, KK Holmes: Nonspecific vaginitis. Diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiologic associations. Am J Med 74 ( 1983 ) 14 2 Boggess KA: Pathophysiology of pretermbirth: emerging concepts of maternal infection. Clin Perinatol 32 ( 2005 ) 561 3 Boggess KA, K Moss, P Madianos, AP Murtha, J Beck, S Offenbacher: Fetal immune response to oral pathogens and risk of pretermbirth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 193 ( 2005 ) 1121 4 Cabrera M, MA Shaw, C Sharples, H Williams, M Castes, J Convit, et al
Introduction Pretermbirth (PTB) is a significant and growing public health problem leading to increased neonatal morbidity and mortality and entailing substantial social and economic costs . PTB is the leading cause of infant mortality in industrialized countries, accounting for 60% of perinatal mortality and about half of long-term neurological morbidity . There is also mounting evidence linking PTB to health outcomes in adulthood . Despite the identification of numerous determinants of PTB, only about half of preterm deliveries are preceded by a
Treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) greatly reduces the risk of cervical cancer. Treatment involves ablation or excision of the transformation zone of the cervix, most commonly using an electrosurgical excision technique known as LLETZ. However, the peak incidence of CIN occurs in young women, so if excision of a portion of the cervix has an adverse effect on pregnancy outcome, this might have a significant impact. This review discusses the methodology and findings of the published literature on the association between cervical treatment and preterm birth, and the clinical implications of these findings.
458 Usui et al,Lactobacilli on pretermbirth
The prevention of premature delivery remains a
major obstetric challenge. Each year in Japan, ap-
proximately 10,000 newborns are delivered before
completing 33 weeks of gestation, representing
0.9% of all births .Approximately 10% of sur-
vivors with a birth weight of < 1500 g later develop
cerebral palsy,and 25% to 50% exhibit abnormal-
ities of cognition or behavior .
Infection in the lower genital tract has been impli-
cated as a cause of preterm labor.The evidence
A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a fast acting effect on fish oil.
Introduction Pretermbirth is the most common cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality [ 1 ]. The incidence of pretermbirth has increased worldwide to an estimated rate of 11.1%; including important variations in incidence based on geographic location and race, with up to 15 million babies affected by pretermbirth in 2010 [ 2 ], [ 3 ]. Pretermbirth causes short-term complications due to developmental immaturity of biological systems, and is a significant risk factor for long-term morbidities, such as neurodevelopmental complications [ 4 ]. To avoid serious