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Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering 2017; 3(2): 83–86 Martin Dommert*, Marcel Reginatto, Miroslav Zboril, Fine Fiedler, Stephan Helmbrecht, Wolfgang Enghardt and Benjamin Lutz Measurement of the energy spectrum of secondary neutrons in a proton therapy environment Abstract: Measurement of the energy spectrum of secondary neutrons were carried out at the OncoRay Proton Therapy facility in Dresden, following an approach originating in neutron metrology which is well suited for both the characterization of secondary neutron fields at proton

Radiochim. Acta 89, 265–277 (2001)  by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, München Fast neutron and proton therapy sources By D. T. L. Jones∗ National Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 72, Faure, 7131 South Africa (Received December 10, 1999; accepted in revised form July 24, 2000) Radiation therapy / Fast neutrons / Protons / Sources / Fluence spectra Summary. Neutrons from the reactions of protons or deuterons of energies between 35 and 70 MeV on beryllium are most suitable for therapy because of the high yield and good penetration. Lower energy sources are used for

References 1. National Association for Proton Therapy. (2014). Retrieved August 20, 2014, from http://www.proton-therapy.org/facts.htm . 2. Fowler, J. F. (2003). What can we expect from dose escalation using proton beams. Clin. Oncol ., 15 (1), S10–S15. DOI: 10.1053/clon.2002.0182. 3. Xu, X. G., Bednarz, B., & Paganetti, H. (2008). A review of dosimetry studies on external-beam radiation treatment with respect to second cancer induction. Phys. Med. Biol ., 53 , 193–241. DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/53/13/R01. 4. Chung, C. S., Keating, N., Yock, T., & Tarbell, N

Radiochim. Acta 89, 279–287 (2001)  by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, München Reference dosimetry for fast neutron and proton therapy By D. T. L. Jones∗ National Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 72, Faure, 7131 South Africa (Received December 10, 1999; accepted in revised form July 27, 2000) Radiation therapy / Fast neutrons / Protons / Dosimetry Summary. Fast neutrons and protons undergo fundamentally different interactions in tissue. The former interact with nuclei, while the latter, as in the case of photons, interact mainly with atomic electrons. Protons do

medium on energy spectra of the 6 MV X-ray beams from medical linac. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. , 1 , 115-118. 4. Ottaviano, G., Picardi, L., Pillon, M., Ronsivalle, C., Sandri, S. (2014). The radiation fields around a proton therapy facility: A comparison of Monte Carlo simulations. Rad. Phys. Chem. , 95 , 236-239. 5. Jia, X., Schümann, J., Paganetti, H., & Jiang, S. B. (2012). GPU-based fast Monte Carlo dose calculation for proton therapy. Phys. Med. Biol., 57 (23), 7783-7797. 6. Konefał, A., Szaflik, P., & Zipper, W. (2010). Influence of the energy spectrum and the

Radiochim. Acta 98, 447–457 (2010) / DOI 10.1524/ract.2010.1740 © by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, München Excitation functions of nuclear reactions leading to the soft-radiation emitting radionuclides 45Ca, 49V and 204Tl in beam collimator materials used in proton therapy By S. M. Qaim∗, K. Kettern, Yu. N. Shubin+, S. Sudár# and H. H. Coenen Institut für Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany (Received September 4, 2009; accepted in revised form March 10, 2010) Proton induced reaction

radiotherapy techniques are outlined with their dosimetric advantages. Following the 1990s, the combination between proper surgery and chemotherapy has eliminated the need for pre-operative radiotherapy. Most clinical studies have used adjuvant radiotherapy for patients with positive resection margins, with good results but hard to dissociate from those of the concurrently administered chemotherapy. Proton therapy is frequently indicated for these patients, due to the healthy tissue sparing characteristics. Studies have pointed out the correlation between radiotherapy

intensity-modulated radiation therapy and proton therapy for distal esophageal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008; 72: 278-87. 13. Pan X, Zhang X, Li Y, Mohan R, Liao Z. Impact of using different four-dimensional computed tomography data sets to design proton treatment plans for distal esophageal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009; 73: 601-9. 14. Sugahara S, Tokuuye K, Okumura T, Nakahara A, Saida Y, Kagei K, et al. Clinical results of proton beam therapy for cancer of the esophagus. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005; 61: 76-84. 15. Mizumoto M

-collimated configuration with mono-energetic proton beams of 165 MeV and 224 MeV, respectively. Results acquired by means of trans- versal PGS at different phantom depths, ranging from 6 cm before the Bragg peak (BP) to 3.5 cm beyond the BP in 5 mm steps with a 1 cm slit collimation (tungsten) showed a slight decrease of PG yields after the BP. Similar measurements with a semi-opened collimation configuration demonstrated a steeper decrease of PG yields after the BP. Keywords: cerium-bromide, prompt-gamma, time-of-flight, proton therapy, range verification, gamma

Abstract

The paper introduces a simple fitting function for quick assessment of proton ranges in biological targets and human tissues. The function has been found by fitting an extensive data set of Monte Carlo proton ranges obtained with the aid of the SRIM-2013 code. The data has been collected for 28 different targets at 8 energies in the interval from 60 MeV to 220 MeV. The paper shows that at a given kinetic proton-beam energy, the Monte Carlo ranges can be satisfactorily fitted by a power function that depends solely on the target density. This is a great advantage for targets, for which the exact chemical composition is not known, or the mean ionizing potential is not reliably known. The satisfactory fit is meant as the fit that stays within the natural range straggling of the Monte Carlo ranges. In the second step, the energy-scaling yielding a universal fitting formula for proton ranges as a function of proton-beam energy and target density is introduced and discussed.