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the materials used for soil stabilization are sea peel, pumice, froth concrete, thermic power station ash, fly ash, volcanic ash, lime, cement, auto tire pieces, industrial churn, marble powder, gravel, and rubber [4–19]. Stabilization and solidification refer to treatment processes that are designed to accomplish one or more of the following objectives [20]: a) improve the handling and physical characteristics of the waste, b) limit the mobility of toxic constituents of the waste, and c) render the waste as a usable material in construction. Pumice is an amorphous

American Mineralogist, Volume 95, pages 503–509, 2010 0003-004X/10/0004–503$05.00/DOI: 10.2138/am.2010.3270 503 Cooling-induced crystallization of microlite crystals in two basaltic pumice clasts Lindsay szramek,1,* James e. Gardner,1 and matthias hort2 1Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-0254, U.S.A. 2Institute of Geophysics, University of Hamburg, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany abstract Microlites in pumice fragments can record the rate of magma decompression and ascent, but

(sialates) are chain and ring polymers with Si 4+ and Al 3+ , and their general formula is M n [-(SiO 2 ) z -AlO 2 ] n · w H 2 O, where M is a monovalent cation such as K + or Na + , n is the degree of polycondensation, and z is 1, 2, or 3. Chains and rings are formed and cross-linked together always through a sialate Si-O-Al bridge [3, 4–8]. The preparation of geopolymer cement by using pumice reduces environmental pollution. CO 2 emissions from cement production are incurred through the consumption of fossil fuels, the use of electricity, and the chemical

., Kıyıldı K. R., Karaca Z. (2014). Recycling waste from natural stone processing plants to stabilise clayey soil. Environmental Earth Science, 71(10), 4397-4407. [11] Annadurai G., Juang R. S., Lee D. J. (2002). Use of cellulose-based wastes for adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions. J. Hazard. Mater., 92(3), 263-274. [12] Sepehr M. N., Zarrabi M., Kazemian H., Amrane A., Yaghmaian K., Ghaffari H. R. (2013). Removal of hardness agents, calcium and magnesium, by natural and alkaline modified pumice stones in single and binary systems. Applied Surface Science. 274(June

References Akbal, F. (2005) Adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution onto pumice powder, Journal of colloid and interface science , 286(2), pp. 455–458. Arslan, A. & Veli, S. (2012) Zeolite 13X for adsorption of ammonium ions from aqueous solutions and hen slaughterhouse wastewaters, Journal of the Taiwan institute of chemical engineers, 43(3), pp. 393–398. Bandosz, T.J. & Petit, C. (2009) On the reactive adsorption of ammonia on activated carbons modified by impregnation with inorganic compounds, Journal of colloid and interface science , 338(2), pp

, 425–439 [10] Marinos G., Melidonis N., On the strength of the sea quakes (tsunami) during the prehistoric eruptions of Santorini, Acta of the First International Scientific Congress on the Volcano of Thera (Athens, 1969), 1971, 277–282 [11] Warren P.M., Puchelt H., Stratified pumice from Bronge Age Knossos. Thera and the Aegean World III. The Third international congress (3–9 September 1989, Santorini, Greece), The Thera Foundation, London, 1989 [12] Bichler M., Egger H., Preisinger A., Ritter D., Stastny P., NAA of the “Minoan pumice” at Thera and comparison to

record of a large-scale explosive eruption in the Vanuatu Arc: ∼1 Ma Efate Pumice Formation. in: White J.D.L., Smellie J.L., Clague D.A. (Eds.) Explosive subaqueous volcanism, American Geophysical Union, Washington D.C., 2003, 273–283 [21] Bath A.H., Burgess W.G., Carney J.N., The chemistry and hydrology of thermal springs on Efate, Vanuatu, SW Pacific. Geothermics, 1986, 15, 277–294 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-6505(86)90105-7 [22] Carney J.N., Efate geothermal project, Phase 1. Geology and reconnaissance hydrology. Report of the institute of Geological Sciences

Abstract

The decolourization of Turquoise Blue HFG by immobilized cells of Lysinibacillus fusiformis B26 was investigated. Cells of L. fusiformis B26 were immobilized by entrapment in agar and calcium alginate matrices and attached in pumice particles. The effects of operational conditions (e.g., agar concentrations, cell concentrations, temperature, and inoculum amount) on microbial decolourization by immobilized cells were investigated. The results revealed that alginate was proven to be the best as exhibiting maximum decolourization (69.62%), followed by agar (55.55%) at 40°C. Pumice particles were the poorest. Optimum conditions for agar matrix were found: concentration was 3%, cell amount was 0.5 g and temperature was 40°C (55.55%). Ca-alginate beads were loaded with 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g of wet cell pellets and the highest colour removal activity was observed with 2.0 g of cell pellet at 40°C for alginate beads. Also, 0.5 and 1.0 g of pumice particles that were loaded with 0.25 and 0.5 g of cell pellets respectively were used and the results were found very similar to each other.

1 Introduction Pumice, which is an industrial raw material, is a porous, natural, light type of rock formed by volcanic activities. Pumice aggregates that are used in the production of lightweight concretes reduce the dead load on the structure, provide partial thermal and acoustic insulation, and increase fire resistance when compared with the concretes produced with limestone aggregates. However, the fact that the aggregates have a high water absorption capacity owing to their porous structure is a disadvantage in terms of lightweight concrete production [1

References Arpacioğlu, Ü. (2004). Cephe Yangınları ve Cephe Kaplamalarının Yangın Güvenliği Açısından Değerlendirilmesi, Çatıder, Çatı Cephe Fuarı, CNR, İstanbul, Türkiye. Barbero, S., Dutto, M., Ferrua, C. and Pereno, A. (2014). Analysis on existent thermal insulating plasters towards innovative applications: Evaluation methodology for a real cost-performance comparison. Energy and Buildings, 77, 40-47. Celik, S., Family, R. and Menguc, M.P. (2016). Analysis of perlite and pumice based building insulation materials. Journal of Building Engineering, 6