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Economics Li, H., Zhang J., and Zhu Y. 2008. “The Quantity–Quality Trade-off of Children in a Developing Country: Identification using Twins.” Demography 45 (1):223–243. Li H. Zhang J. Zhu Y. 2008 The Quantity–Quality Trade-off of Children in a Developing Country: Identification using Twins 45 1 223 243 Demography Liu, H. 2014. “The Quality-Qquantity Trade-off: Evidence from the Relaxation of China’s One-child Policy.” Journal of Population Economics 27 (2):565–602. Liu H. 2014 The Quality-Qquantity Trade-off: Evidence from the Relaxation of China’s One-child Policy

-Smith J. Popkin B. M. 2010 Understanding community context and adult health changes in China: Development of an urbanicity scale Social Science & Medicine 71(8) 1436 1446 Lee, J. (2008). “Sibling size and investment in children’s education: An Asian instrument.” Journal of Population Economics , 21 (4), 855–875. Lee J. 2008 Sibling size and investment in children’s education: An Asian instrument Journal of Population Economics 21(4) 855 875 Li, H., Zhang, J., & Zhu, Y. (2008). “The quantity-quality trade-off of children in a developing country: Identification using

likely to be a boy and to have higher cognitive ability. Rural households are more likely to have more than one child in the family. Table 1 also shows that only-child students have better family socioeconomic background. Their parents have received at least 2.5 more years of education than the parents of those having siblings in their family. Table 1 also indicates that only-child students have better teachers than those who are not the only chid in their family. Due to reasons such as quantity–quality trade-off, households may send their only child to better

viewed as a positive shock to the return to child quality since (i) it raises the return to human capital investment, (ii) it had a very low fatality rate, and (iii) it had negligible prevalence among adults, they find that the rise in the return to child quality had a significant adverse effect on fertility rates. Finally, the prediction of the theory regarding the adverse effect of increased preference for educated offspring on fertility rates is also supported by the empirical evidence (Becker et al., 2010). 4.3.3 Quantity-Quality Trade-off in the Modern Era


Mortality 120 4.2.1 The Central Hypothesis 120 4.2.2 Evidence 121 4.3 The Rise in Demand for Human Capital 123 4.3.1 The Theory 125 4.3.2 Evidence: Education and the Demographic Transition 127 4.3.3 Quantity-Quality Trade-off in the Modern Era 129 x . Contents 4.4 The Rise in Demand for Human Capital: Reinforcing Mechanisms 130 4.4.1 The Decline in Child Labor 131 4.4.2 The Rise in Life Expectancy 131 4.4.3 Evolution of Preferences for Offspring Quality 132 4.5 The Decline in the Gender Gap 132 4.5.1 The Theory and Its Testable Predictions 133 4.5.2 The Evidence 135 4

that covers the investment cost this analysis presents comparative welfare differentials yielded by marginal cost pricing and quantity outputs under different organizational arrangements. In Section 6.4 , I analyze the case of feasible quantity–quality trade-offs. I limit my analysis to single-product natural monopolies. For an analysis of regulation and liberalization in industries susceptible to competition–-telecommunications, natural gas provision, and electricity generation and retail sales–-see, e.g., Armstrong and Sappington (2006) . These monopolies

a quantity-quality trade-off between numbers of children and the level of education given each child. This quantity-quality trade-off could explain the high observed nega- tive correlation between literacy and fertility. Not only do literacy rates across counties correlate highly with the onset of the fertility decline in Victorian England, but also fertility rates across counties correlate highly with literacy rates at marriage for the same cohort some twenty years later. Indeed, the level of fertility in 1841 explains over half of the variance in 92

, 287. See also government regulation; taxes on alcohol punching-down technique, 91 Purple Wine Company, 295 quality of grapes: and aging, 268, 311–12n.2; defects, 75; fl avor compounds, 68; and grape location or region, 57–58, 99, 117, 120, 190, 242, 264–67, 303; irrigation and, 65; quantity-quality trade-off in grape yield, 9, 50, 62–63, 76, 107, 217, 273, 292, 299, 300; sugar-to-acid ratios, 49, 66, 67–68, 266; tannin, 68. See also sugar content quality of wine, 38–40, 48–51, 210, 216, 243, 268; “cachet value,” 176; categories of (see also commodity

larger return. That is, the shadow price of child quality has fallen, inducing a reduction in fertility due to the quantity- quality trade- off embedded in this model. I use newly assembled data on the expansion of HIV/ AIDS services in Zambia to examine changes in reproductive knowledge and behavior associ- ated with the local introduction of PMTCT. A primarily descriptive analysis of conditional means yields three main findings. First, the local introduc- tion of PMTCT was associated with an increase in knowledge of mother- to-child transmission (MTCT) and an

of De la Croix and Doepke (2003) where parents face a quantity–quality trade-off in their fertility decision. Richer families have less children than poorer families but they invest more in the education of their offspring. In such a framework government family policy faces an important trade-off between growth and inequality as soon as skill-specific fertility rates change differently. As this discussion shows, the relation between family policy and individual decisions on fertility and labor supply is very complex. In order to disentangle various intertwined